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Table 2 Summary of risk factors included studies. Displays which risk factors - associated with youth violence - are described in papers and whether there is a positive, no, or unclear association. For papers including a quantitative analysis, risk factors with statistically significant results were categorised as positively associated. Whereas for qualitative studies, risk factors mentioned within interviews or literature reviews were identified as positively associated. The design of each study is further highlighted within the table. The count of studies mentioning each risk factor was used to determine the relevance for discussion

From: Risk factors associated with knife-crime in United Kingdom among young people aged 10–24 years: a systematic review

Individual risk factors Positive association No association Unclear association
Aged between 10 and 24 years 6 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2014;
Barlas et al, 2006;
Falshaw et al, 1997;
Hayden et al, 2010;
Qualitative
Densley et al, 2015;
0 studies 0 studies
Gender 3 studies
Quantitative
Males
Falshaw et al, 1997;
Nasr et al, 2010;
Females
Hayden et al, 2010;
3 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2014;
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2009
1 study
Quantitative
Barlas et al, 2006;
Ethnicity 1 study
Quantitative
Smith I et al, 2007;
3 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Smith D et al, 2007;
0 studies
Education 3 studies
Quantitative
Bailey et al, 2001;
Clement et al, 2010;
Hayden et al, 2010;
0 studies 1 study
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2010
Adverse childhood experiences 7 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Bailey et al, 2001;
Falshaw et al, 1997;
Smith D et al, 2007;
Smith I et al, 2007;
Wood J et al, 2017;
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2010;
0 studies 0 studies
Poor mental health 3 studies
Quantitative
Bailey et al, 2001;
Barlas et al, 2006;
Wood J et al, 2017;
0 studies 0 studies
Previous victimisation 3 studies
Quantitative
Barlas et al, 2006;
Smith D et al, 2007;
Wood J et al, 2017;
0 studies 0 studies
History of violent behaviour Not identified Not identified Not identified
Relationship risk factors Positive association No association Unclear association
Poor parental attachment 2 studies
Quantitative
Nasr et al, 2010;
Smith D et al, 2007;
0 studies 0 studies
High-risk peer groups 7 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Barlas et al, 2006;
Falshaw et al, 1997;
Hayden et al, 2010;
Smith D et al, 2007;
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2010;
0 studies 0 studies
Marital Discord Not identified Not identified Not identified
Low socioeconomic household status Not identified Not identified Not identified
Community risk factors Positive association No association Unclear association
Deprivation/high rates of unemployment 6 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Nasr et al, 2010:
Wood R, et al 2010;
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2010;
Densley et al, 2015;
0 studies 0 studies
High crime levels 1 study
Quantitative
Wood R, et al 2010;
0 studies 0 studies
Low social cohesion 1 study
Quantitative
Barlas et al, 2006;
0 studies 0 studies
High residential mobility Not identified Not identified Not identified
Societal risk factors Positive association No association Unclear association
Economic inequality 3 studies
Quantitative
Nasr et al, 2010;
Wood R, et al 2010;
Qualitative
Densley et al, 2015;
0 studies 0 studies
Marginalisation/
stigma/
discrimination
4 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Qualitative
Densley et al, 2011;
Densley et al, 2015;
0 studies 0 studies
Perception of status and masculinity 6 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2014;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Barlas et al, 2006;
Clement et al, 2010;
Qualitative
Briggs et al, 2010;
0 studies 0 studies
Relationship with police 3 studies
Quantitative
Alleyne et al, 2010;
Alleyne et al, 2016;
Qualitative
Densley et al, 2010;
0 studies 0 studies
Rapid Social Change Not identified Not identified Not identified
Cultural norms Not identified Not identified Not identified
Gender Inequalities Not identified Not identified Not identified