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Table 2 Bivariable Associations of Individual, Interpersonal and Neighbourhood Factors with Cyberbullying

From: Factors associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants in Canada: a cross-sectional nationally-representative study

  Immigrants Non-Immigrants Immigrants vs. Non-immigrants
% POR 95% CI % POR 95% CI POR 95% CI
Cyberbullying in the last 12 months 2.1    2.3     
Individual-level
 Sex
  Male 2.8 2.05 1.17, 3.58 2.1 0.86 0.66, 1.12 1.34 0.84, 2.14
  Female 1.4 1.00 ref. 2.4 1.00 ref. 0.56 0.37, 0.85
 Age
  15–24 years 3.3 1.86 0.81, 4.29 3.3 2.08 1.51, 2.87 0.98 0.53, 1.82
  25–34 years 2.5 1.44 0.65, 3.20 2.6 1.63 1.13, 2.34 0.97 0.49, 1.90
  35–44 years 1.8 0.99 0.47, 2.09 2.4 1.48 1.06, 2.06 0.74 0.44, 1.25
  45 years + 1.8 1.00 ref. 1.6 1.00 ref. 1.10 0.58, 2.07
 Household income
  Under $20,000 2.5 2.11 0.94, 4.74 2.9 1.88 1.17, 3.01 1.01 0.44, 2.33
  Unknown 3.6 1.42 0.79, 2.54 3.6 1.51 1.15, 2.00 0.84 0.49, 1.46
  $20,000 + 1.7 1.00 ref. 1.9 1.00 ref. 0.90 0.61, 1.33
 Educational attainment
  High school not completed 3.1 1.51 0.54, 4.26 3.2 1.48 1.02, 2.13 0.97 0.35, 2.63
  High school or more 2.0 1.00 ref. 2.2 1.00 ref. 0.94 0.65, 1.37
 Marital status
  Married or common law 1.5 1.00 ref. 1.6 1.00 ref. 0.93 0.62, 1.40
  Widowed, separated, divorced 4.9 3.48 0.87, 13.98 2.4 1.55 1.11, 2.18 2.09 0.53, 8.31
  Single, never married 3.1 2.14 1.20, 3.83 3.5 2.31 1.75, 3.05 0.87 0.53, 1.41
 Visible minority
  Yes 1.5 0.50 0.28, 0.91 2.5 1.11 0.56, 2.19 0.61 0.28, 1.30
  No 3.0 1.00 ref. 2.2 1.00 ref. 1.34 0.81, 2.21
 Disability
  Yes 3.7 2.14 1.04, 4.42 3.7 2.14 1.65, 2.76 0.98 0.48, 1.99
  No 1.7 1.00 ref. 1.8 1.00 ref. 0.98 0.69, 1.40
 Mental health condition
  Yes 7.0 4.61 2.09, 10.18 5.7 3.70 2.83, 4.84 1.25 0.58, 2.72
  No 1.6 1.00 ref. 1.6 1.00 ref. 1.00 0.72, 1.40
 Alcohol use
  High 2.1 1.20 0.51, 2.80 2.7 1.10 0.79, 1.54 0.77 0.39, 1.52
  Low 2.4 1.39 0.89, 2.81 1.8 0.73 0.53, 1.00 1.36 0.90, 2.06
  None 1.8 1.00 ref. 2.5 1.00 ref. 0.71 0.37, 1.37
Interpersonal-level
 History of childhood victimization
  Yes 5.0 6.12 3.56, 10.52 3.6 2.24 1.74, 2.89 1.41 0.91, 2.17
  No 0.9 1.00 ref. 1.6 1.00 ref. 0.52 0.33, 0.80
 Number of close friends/relatives
  0–5 1.6 0.74 0.30, 1.83 2.7 1.51 1.14, 2.00 0.59 0.38, 0.92
  6 to 10 2.7 1.23 0.47, 3.25 2.2 1.23 0.90, 1.68 1.21 0.72, 2.04
  More than 10 2.2 1.00 ref. 1.8 1.00 ref. 1.21 0.50, 2.96
 Any IPV
  Yes 4.5 2.28 0.94, 5.53 7.0 3.61 2.55, 5.11 0.62 0.26, 1.51
  No 2.0 1.00 ref. 2.0 1.00 ref. 0.99 0.69, 1.41
 Perceived discrimination
  Yes 5.2 3.78 2.02, 7.09 5.3 3.04 2.28, 4.04 0.97 0.53, 1.78
  No 1.4 1.00 ref. 1.8 1.00 ref. 0.78 0.54, 1.12
Neighbourhood-level
 Unwelcoming neighbourhood
  Yes 8.7 5.91 2.34, 14.92 4.7 2.26 1.57, 3.25 0.74 0.53, 1.03
  No 1.6 1.00 ref. 2.1 1.00 ref. 1.93 0.77, 4.86
 Neighbourhood discrimination
  Yes 6.1 3.67 1.31, 10.28 5.8 3.00 2.01, 4.47 1.05 0.37, 2.99
  No 1.7 1.00 ref. 2 1.00 ref. 0.86 0.62, 1.18
 Neighbourhood trust
  High/moderate trust 2.8 1.00 ref. 3.2 1.00 ref. 0.86 0.52, 1.43
  Low/no trust 1.6 1.77 0.95, 3.29 1.8 1.78 1.37, 2.31 0.86 0.57, 1.31
  n (unweighted)    6273    21,152   
  1. Abbreviations: POR prevalence odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. Note: Prevalence and POR estimates are weighted