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Table 3 Linear regression results of variables related to concerns and knowledge associated with the psychological impact of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak measured with DASS-Subscales and the IES-R

From: Psychological correlates of COVID-19 pandemic in the Austrian population

Variables N (%) Stress Anxiety Depression Impact of Event
R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p
Transmission via droplets
 Yes 4077 (98.8)   2.41 ± 3.60 .98   −0.03 ± 2.79 .98   −0.92 ± 3.41 .60   6.85 ± 7.99 .09
 No 14 (0.3) 0.000 6.26 ± 6.71 .06 0.000 5.00 ± 5.20 .06 0.001 4.51 ± 6.36 .16 0.000 15.53 ± 14.89 <.05
 Unsure (Ref.) 35 (0.8)     
Transmission via contaminated objects
 Yes 2767 (67.1)   0.67 ± 0.75 .08   0.57 ± 0.58 .06   0.60 ± 0.71 .10   0.11 ± 1.67 .90
 No 236 (5.7) 0.001 −1.09 ± 1.52 .16 0.002 − 1.05 ± 1.18 .08 0.001 −0.97 ± 1.44 .19 0.000 −3.16 ± 3.37 .07
 Unsure (Ref.) 1123 (27.2)     
Transmission via air
 Yes 978 (23.7)   0.27 ± 0.91 .55   0.60 ± 0.70 .10   0.21 ± 0.86 .64   0.70 ± 2.01 .49
 No 1929 (46.8) 0.004 −2.17 ± 0.77 <.001a 0.006 −1.45 ± 0.60 <.001a 0.003 −1.80 ± 0.73 <.001a 0.003 −3.74 ± 1.72 <.001a
 Unsure (Ref.) 1219 (29.5)     
Knowledge about increasing infections
 Yes 4112 (99.7) 0.001 −6.30 ± 5.68 .030 0.003 −7.89 ± 4.39 <.001 0.002 −7.58 ± 5.38 .006 0.001 −12.76a ± 12.60 12.60 .047
No (Ref.) 14 (0.3)     
Knowledge about increasing deaths
 Yes 4088 (99.1) 0.000 −1.86 ± 3.46 .29 0.000 −1.54 ± 2.68 .26 0.000 −2.36 ± 3.28 .16 0.000 −0.09 ± 7.67 .98
 No (Ref.) 38 (0.9)      
Knowledge about increasing recoveries
 Yes 3619 (87.7) 0.003 −1.71 ± 1.01 <.001 0.005 −1.73 ± 0.78 <.001 0.004 −2.04 ± 0.95 <.001 0.004 −4.36 ± 2.23 <.001
 No (Ref.) 507 (12.3)     
Main source of information
 Internet 2324 (56.3)   1.37 ± −2.26 <.001a   0.30 ± −0.73 .30   1.04 ± −1.86 <.001a   −0.21 ± 1.65 .80
 Radio 303 (7.3)   0.03 ± −0.01 .97   0.58 ± −0.50 .28   0.12 ± −0.07 .85   0.99 ± 3.01 .52
 Family/Friends 78 (1.9) 0.005 0.91 ± 0.19 .47 0.003 1.23 ± −0.03 .21 0.004 1.28 ± 0.21 .28 0.001 1.41 ± 5.49 .61
 Others (e.g. newspapers) 169 (4.1)   −1.93 ± 0.25 .029   −1.75 ± 0.80 .011a   −1.40 ± 0.27 .10   −4.15 ± 3.86 .035
 TV (Ref.) 1252 (30.3)     
Satisfaction with information
 Very satisfied 1696 (41.1)   −1.92 ± 2.28 .10   −2.44 ± 1.77 .007a   −2.56 ± 2.16 .020   −3.84 ± 5.08 .14
 Somewhat satisfied 1974 (47.8)   0.26 ± 2.27 .82   −1.28 ± 1.76 .16   −0.70 ± 2.15 .53   −1.53 ± 5.06 .55
 Not very satisfied 294 (7.1) 0.012 2.00 ± 2.54 .12 0.011 0.18 ± 1.97 .86 0.015 1.19 ± 2.41 .33 0.005 2.07 ± 5.66 .47
 Not satisfied at all 72 (1.7)   4.26 ± 3.33 .012a   1.17 ± 2.59 .38   2.34 ± 3.16 .15   1.96 ± 7.43 .61
 Do not know (Ref.) 90 (2.2)     
Confidence in diagnosis capability
4-point Likert scale 2.98 (0.70) 0.030 −2.72 ± 0.47 <.001 0.027 −1.99 ± 0.37 <.001 0.033 −2.70 ± 0.45 <.001 0.019 −4.77 ± 1.05 <.001
  (Continuous)      
Likelihood of own infection
 Very likely 467 (11.3)   2.94 ± 1.45 <.001a   1.24 ± 1.12 .030   2.40 ± 1.38 .001a   2.29 ± 3.23 .16
 Somewhat likely 1587 (38.5)   −0.36 ± 1.20 .56   −0.98 ± 0.93 .039   −0.18 ± 1.14 .75   −2.59 ± 2.67 .06
 Not very likely 1344 (32.6) 0.025 −1.95 ± 1.22 .002a 0.020 −2.08 ± 0.95 <.001a 0.015 −1.30 ± 1.16 .028 0.014 −4.29 ± 2.72 .002a
 Not likely at all 348 (8.4)   −3.75 ± 1.56 <.001a   −3.23 ± 1.21 <.001a   −2.48 ± 1.48 .001a   −9.43 ± 3.47 <.001a
 Do not know (Ref.) 380 (9.2)     
Likelihood of surviving
 Very likely 2169 (52.6)   −4.71 ± 1.55 <.001a   −5.04 ± 1.19 <.001a   −4.18 ± 1.47 <.001a   −14.35 ± 3.41 <.001a
 Somewhat likely 1632 (39.6)   −2.61 ± 1.57 .001a   −3.05 ± 1.21 <.001a   −2.40 ± 1.49 .002a   −8.58 ± 3.46 <.001a
 Not very likely 92 (2.2) 0.018 0.78 ± 2.65 .56 0.034 1.08 ± 2.03 .30 0.019 1.83 ± 2.51 .15 0.031 −0.33 ± 5.83 .91
 Not likely at all 31 (0.8)   −0.78 ± 4.06 .71   0.11 ± 3.12 .95   1.26 ± 3.84 .52   0.80 ± 8.95 .86
 Do not know (Ref.) 202 (4.9)     
Concerns about family members
 Very worried 1215 (29.4)   5.39 ± 1.96 <.001a   4.16 ± 1.52 <.001a   2.97 ± 1.88 .002a   10.47 ± 4.35 <.001a
 Somewhat worried 1737 (42.1)   0.89 ± 1.93 .37   0.62 ± 1.50 .42   −0.83 ± 1.86 .38   0.51 ± 4.29 .82
 Not very worried 871 (21.1) 0.068 −2.06 ± 2.00 .043 0.061 −1.36 ± 1.55 .09 0.042 −2.49 ± 1.92 .011a 0.069 −6.12 ± 4.42 .007a
 Not worried at all 183 (4.4)   −2.36 ± 2.41 .05   −0.70 ± 1.87 .46   −2.46 ± 2.31 .037   −7.63 ± 5.34 .005a
 Do not know (Ref.) 120 (2.9)     
Concerns about children
 Very worried 262 (18.1)   5.21 ± 1.36 <.001a   4.48 ± 1.05 <.001a   2.53 ± 1.29 <.001a   12.10 ± 3.01 <.001a
 Somewhat worried 340 (23.5)   1.47 ± 1.21 .017   0.43 ± 0.94 .36   −1.38 ± 1.15 .019a   4.18 ± 2.68 .002a
 Not very worried 645 (44.5) 0.017 −0.62 ± 0.92 .19 0.024 −1.49 ± 0.71 <.001a 0.014 −2.24 ± 0.88 <.001a 0.023 −3.61 ± 2.04 <.001a
 Not worried at all 184 (12.7)   −1.56 ± 1.60 .06   −1.09 ± 1.24 .09   −2.39 ± 1.52 .02a   −3.96 ± 3.55 .029a
 Do not know (Ref.) 17 (1.2)     
  1. Notes. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean and standard deviations in parentheses for continuous predictor variables or n (%) for categorical predictor variables
  2. asignificant after Bonferroni Holm adjustment for multiple comparisons
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