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Table 2 Linear regression results of physical health variables associated with the psychological impact of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak measured with DASS-Subscales and the IES-R

From: Psychological correlates of COVID-19 pandemic in the Austrian population

Variables N (%)
M (SD)
Stress Anxiety Depression Impact of Event
R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p
Subjective health status              
5-point Likert scale 4.24 (0.71) 0.100 −4.83 ± 0.44 <.001 0.100 −3.76 ± 0.34 <.001 0.095 −4.46 ± 0.42 <.001 0.051 −7.68 ± 1.01 <.001
(Continuous)      
Pre-existing condition
 Yes 794 (19.2) 0.004 1.83 ± 0.84 <.001 0.020 2.10 ± 0.65 <.001 0.004 1.67 ± 0.79 <.001 0.005 4.26 ± 1.86 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3332 (80.8)     
Fever
 Yes 75 (1.8) 0.001 2.70 ± 2.47 .032 0.003 3.17 ± 1.91 .001 0.001 2.40 ± 2.34 .045 0.002 7.24 ± 5.48 .010
 No (Ref.) 4051 (80.8)     
Chills
 Yes 149 (3.6) 0.018 7.77 ± 1.76 <.001 0.026 7.30 ± 1.35 <.001 0.014 6.40 ± 1.67 <.001 0.011 13.36 ± 3.91 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3977 (96.4)     
Headache
 Yes 1925 (46.7) 0.056 5.15 ± 0.64 <.001 0.034 3.09 ± 0.50 <.001 0.042 4.24 ± 0.61 <.001 0.017 6.27 ± 1.46 <.001
 No (Ref.) 2201 (53.3)     
Myalgia
 Yes 936 (22.7) 0.020 3.62 ± 0.78 <.001 0.022 2.97 ± 0.60 <.001 0.018 3.27 ± 0.74 <.001 0.006 4.42 ± 1.75 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3190 (77.3)     
Cough
 Yes 886 (21.5) 0.006 1.97 ± 0.80 <.001 0.008 1.87 ± 0.62 <.001 0.002 1.23 ± 0.76 .002 0.003 3.19 ± 1.78 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3240 (78.5)      
Respiratory problems
 Yes 222 (5.4)
3904 (94.6) (5.4)
0.016 1.97 ± 0.80 <.001 0.050 8.32 ± 1.11 <.001 0.013 5.22 ± 1.38 <.001 0.008 9.64 ± 3.24 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3940 (94.6)     
Dizziness
 Yes 631 (15.3) 0.053 6.90 ± 0.89 <.001 0.070 6.14 ± 0.69 <.001 0.047 6.19 ± 0.85 <.001 0.025 10.54 ± 2.01 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3495 (84.7)     
Coryza
 Yes 1307 (31.7) 0.007 1.89 ± 0.71 <.001 0.006 1.41 ± 0.55 <.001 0.002 1.05 ± 0.67 .002 0.000 1.15 ± 1.58 .15
 No (Ref.) 2819 (68.3)     
Sore throat
 Yes 968 (23.5) 0.019 3.53 ± 0.77 <.001 0.021 2.85 ± 0.60 <.001 0.008 2.11 ± 0.74 <.001 0.007 4.66 ± 1.72 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3158 (76.5)     
Medical treatment in the past 14 days
 Yes 342 (8.3) 0.009 3.68 ± 1.19 <.001 0.010 2.98 ± 0.92 <.001 0.007 3.21 ± 1.13 <.001 0.004 5.59 ± 2.65 .010
 No (Ref.) 3784 (91.7)     
Direct contact with individual in the past 14 days with confirmed infection
 Yes 107 (2.6) 0.000 1.41 ± 2.08 .19 0.002 2.36 ± 1.61 .004 0.001 1.90 ± 1.97 .06 0.000 3.61 ± 4.61 .12
 No (Ref.) 4019 (97.4)     
Indirect contact with individual in the past 14 days with confirmed infection
 Yes 202 (7.3) 0.003 2.25 ± 1.27 <.001 0.003 1.74 ± 0.98 <.001 0.003 2.05 ± 1.20 <.001 0.002 3.71 ± 2.81 <.01
 No (Ref.) 3824 (92.7)     
Contact with individual with suspected infection
 Yes 544 (13.2) 0.004 2.02 ± 0.97 <.001 0.004 1.60 ± 0.75 <.001 0.002 1.31 ± 0.92 <.001 0.003 4.11 ± 2.16 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3582 (86.8)     
Contact with infectious materials individual
 Yes 1472 (35.7) 0.001 0.79 ± 0.69 .024 0.003 0.88 ± 0.53 .001 0.001 0.85 ± 0.65 .011 0.000 0.80 ± 1.53 .31
 No (Ref.) 2654 (64.3)     
Hospitalization in the past 14 days
 Yes 17 (0.4) 0.001 3.91 ± 5.16 .14 0.000 2.59 ± 3.99 .20 0.001 4.20 ± 4.89 .09 0.000 6.55 ± 11.44 .26
 No (Ref.) 4109 (99.6)     
Testing for COVID-19 in the past 14 days
 Yes 62 (1.5) 0.003 4.49 ± 2.71 <.01 0.001 2.20 ± 2.10 .041 0.002 3.86 ± 2.57 .003 0.000 3.48 ± 6.03 .26
 No (Ref.) 4064 (98.5)     
Quarantine in the past 14 days
 Yes 177 (4.3) 0.003 2.80 ± 1.63 <.001 0.005 3.04 ± 1.26 <.001 0.003 2.82 ± 1.54 <.001 0.003 6.69 ± 3.61 <.001
 No (Ref.) 3949 (95.7)     
  1. Notes. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean and standard deviations in parentheses for continuous predictor variables or n (%) for categorical predictor variables
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