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Table 1 Linear regression results of demographic variables associated with the psychological impact of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak measured with DASS-Subscales and the IES-R

From: Psychological correlates of COVID-19 pandemic in the Austrian population

Variables N (%)
M (SD)
Stress Anxiety Depression Impact of Event
R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p R2 B (95% CI) p
Gender
 Male 1073 (26) 0.036 4.68 ± 0.74 <.001 0.018 −2.59 ± 0.58 <.001 0.014 −2.74 ± 0.71 <.001 0.043 −11.41 ± 1.63 <.001
 Female (Ref.) 3042 (74)     
Age (Continuous) 38.68 (13.36) 0.018 0.11 ± 0.02 <.001 0.006 −0.05 ± 0.02 <.001 0.022 − 0.11 ± 0.02 <.001 0.000 −0.02 ± 0.05 .48
Marital status
 Single 1057 (25.6)   3.37 ± 3.19 .039   −0.71 ± 2.47 .58   3.19 ± 3.01 .038   4.61 ± 7.09 .20
 Married/Partnership 2838 (68.8) 0.002 2.92 ± 3.15 .07 0.001 −1.29 ± 2.44 .30 0.014 0.37 ± 2.97 .80 0.000 4.67 ± 7.00 .19
 Divorced 185 (4.5)   1.23 ± 3.49 .49   −1.83 ± 2.71 .19   0.38 ± 3.29 .82   5.54 ± 7.76 .16
 Widowed (Ref.) 46 (1.1)     
Household size (Continuous) 2.39 (2.21) 0.000 0.03 ± 0.15 .67 0.000 −0.01 ± 0.12 .86 0.000 −0.10 ± 0.14 .16 0.000 0.04 ± 0.33 .80
Children in household
 Yes 1448 (35.1) 0.001 0.82 ± 0.69 .020 0.000 0.09 ± 0.54 .75 0.003 −1.17 ± 0.66 <.001 0.000 1.25 ± 1.54 .11
 No (Ref.) 2678 (64.9)     
Education Level
 No formal education 31 (0.8)   2.40 ± 4.07 .25 0.007 2.07 ± 3.14 .20 0.013 4.19 ± 3.84 .033 0.003 4.31 ± 9.02 .35
 Lower secondary education 216 (5.2)   2.60 ± 2.03 .012 2.20 ± 1.57 .006a 4.33 ± 1.92 <.001a 7.59 ± 4.51 <.001a
 Vocational education 694 (16.8)   0.79 ± 1.64 .35 1.83 ± 1.27 .005a 1.71 ± 1.55 .031 5.21 ± 3.64 .005a
 High School Certificate 1286 (31.2) 0.003 1.66 ± 1.55 .036 1.43 ± 1.20 .002 2.53 ± 1.46 <.001a 3.58 ± 3.44 .041
 Bachelor Degree 584 (14.2)   1.33 ± 1.68 .12 0.87 ± 1.30 .19 1.70 ± 1.58 .036 2.87 ± 3.73 .13
 Master Degree 1096 (26.6)   0.91 ± 1.57 .26 0.11 ± 1.21 .86 0.25 ± 1.48 .74 2.20 ± 3.48 .22
 Doctorate/PhD (Ref.) 219 (5.3)  
Employment status   0.010    0.007    0.027    0.003   
 Unemployed 208 (5) 3.19 ± 1.52 <.001a 2.73 ± 1.18 <.001a 4.60 ± 1.43 <.001a 4.71 ± 3.39 .006a
 Retired 343 (8.3) −1.40 ± 1.21 <.05 0.46 ± 0.94 .34 0.14 ± 1.14 .81 2.62 ± 2.70 .06
 Student 586 (14.2) 1.83 ± 0.97 <.001a 0.91 ± 0.75 .018 3.52 ± 0.91 <.001a −0.04 ± 2.15 .97
 Pupil 113 (2.7) 1.98 ± 2.03 .06 1.49 ± 1.58 .06 5.17 ± 1.91 <.001a 1.39 ± 4.52 .55
 Self-Employed 287 (7) −0.74 ± 1.31 .27 −0.51 ± 1.02 .33 −0.63 ± 1.23 .32 −1.86 ± 2.93 .21
 Employed (Ref.) 2589 (62.7)
Daily working routine only (Self-)Employed (N = 2876)
 Home Office 1438 (50)   −0.71 ± 0.74 .06   −1.31 ± 0.57 <.001a   −2.28 ± 0.70 <.001a   −2.34 ± 1.65 .005a
 Holiday 153 (5.3)   0.12 ± 1.78 .89   −0.32 ± 0.77 .63   −1.09 ± 1.68 .20   −2.03 ± 3.95 .31
 Sick Leave 78 (2.7) 0.004 3.96 ± 2.45 .002a 0.012 4.80 ± 1.89 <.001a 0.015 4.17 ± 2.31 <.001a 0.005 8.93 ± 5.43 .001a
 Others 588 (20.4)   −0.08 ± 1.00 .87   −0.32 ± 0.77 .41   −1.41 ± 0.94 .003a   0.10 ± 2.22 .93
 Normal (Ref.) 619 (21.5)     
Hours per day spent at home (Continuous) 21.22 (4.17) 0.005 0.19 ± 0.08 <.001 0.002 0.10 ± 0.06 .002 0.005 0.18 ± 0.07 <.001 0.001 0.13 ± 0.18 .14
Contact to family/friends outside
 Several times a day 2270 (55)   −1.21 ± 2.71 .38   −2.52 ± 2.10 .018*   −3.23 ± 2.57 .014a   −1.30 ± 6.01 .67
 Daily 888 (21.5)   −1.47 ± 2.77 .30   −2.87 ± 2.14 .009a   −3.23 ± 2.62 .016a   −2.50 ± 6.13 .42
 Every few days 762 (18.5) 0.002 −2.29 ± 2.78 .11 0.004 −3.51 ± 2.15 .001a 0.003 −3.69 ± 2.64 .006a 0.003 −4.58 ± 6.17 .15
 Once in a Week 143 (3.5)   −1.54 ± 3.21 .35   −1.64 ± 2.48 .20   −2.87 ± 3.04 .06   −1.87 ± 7.11 .61
 Never (Ref.) 63 (1.5)     
  1. Notes. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean and standard deviations in parentheses for continuous predictor variables or n (%) for categorical predictor variables
  2. a = significant after Bonferroni Holm adjustment for multiple comparisons
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