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Table 2 Multivariate multi-level logistic regression model adjusted odds ratios of mean travel time tohealth facilities while controlling for confounding determinants associated to full immunisation and DPT3 vaccine among children aged 12–23 months during the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey

From: Spatial access inequities and childhood immunisation uptake in Kenya

Determinants Fully immunised Received DPT3 vaccine
n(%) AORa (95% CIb) n(%) AOR (95% CI)
Mean travel time (minutes)
  < 30 2018 (79.3) 1 2335 (91.5) 1
 30- < 60 581 (70.2) 0.95 (0.67–1.35) 737 (88.9) 1.44 (0.91–2.29)
 60- < 90 161 (58.6) 0.77 (0.52–1.19) 228 (85,7) 1.45 (0.79–2.69)
 90- < 120 85 (60.8) 0.67 (0.30–2.40) 121 (79.9) 0.54 (0.24–1.21)
 120+ 127 (53.8) 0.56 (0.33–0.94) ** 175 (73.3) 0.51 (0.21–0.92) **
Maternal education
 No education 488 (56.5) 1 677 (77.7) 1
 less than secondary 1880 (75.6) 1.55 (1.00–2.40) ** 2270 (91.1) 2.59 (1.25–5.38) **
 secondary or higher 618 (86.2) 2.34 (1.46–3.75) *** 668 (93.3) 2.44 (1.14–5.22) **
Household wealth index
 Poor 885 (63.0) 1 1189 (83.7) 1
 Least poor 655 (76.1) 1.36 (0.89–2.10) 778 (90.4) 1.30 (0.83–2.02)
 Middle 523 (79.1) 1.67 (1.24–2.25) *** 605 (92.0) 1.57 (0.89–2.78)
 Rich 429 (83.0) 2.23 (1.32–3.76) *** 558 (93.9) 3.24 (1.58–6.63) ***
 Richest 431 (82.6) 2.32 (1.43–3.76) *** 485 (92.8) 3.48 (1.72–7.08) ***
Parity c
 Low 1726 (81.9) 1 1999 (93.2) 1
 High 1260 (67.3) 0.60 (0.46–0.78) *** 1616 (85.7) 0.51 (0.35–0.74) ***
Type of residence
 Urban 974 (78.8) 1 1150 (91.3) 1
 Rural 2012 (74.3) 1.39 (1.06–1.82) ** 2465 (89.4) 1.47 (1.02–2.28) **
Random effects
 County & cluster variance (SE) d   0.84 (0.34)   1.68 (0.67)
 ICC e   0.25   0.39
 Wald test   < 0.0001   < 0.0001
 Mean VIF f   1.2   1.3
  1. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01, Adjusted odds ratios, b Confidence interval, c High parity (if mother’s age < 30 years and has more than two children living in the household or is aged ≥30 years and has more than three children living in the household and low parity otherwise d Standard error, e Intra-class correlation coefficient, g Variance inflation factor