Skip to main content

Table 2 Observed means & standard deviations (SD) (times/week) at all three time points and estimated intervention effect (intervention group (IG) vs. control group (CG)) at Time 1 and Time 2 (regression coefficients (Beta (B)) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)) for intake of the various fruit, vegetables and unhealthy snack items (times/week) based on multiple linear regression analyses

From: Effect of a free healthy school meal on fruit, vegetables and unhealthy snacks intake in Norwegian 10- to 12-year-old children

Baseline – Time 1      Model 1   
   N   N   N    
Variable   Mean (SD) BL¥   Mean (SD) Time 1   B 95% CI p-value
Vegetables at dinner IG 55 4.55 (2.71) 52 4.82 (2.35) 157 −.34 −1.00, .31 .304
CG 107 4.93 (2.52) 106 5.31 (2.37)     
Vegetables on sandwiches IG 55 2.52 (2.51) 52 3.12 (2.44) 155 .29 −.43, 1.00 .428
CG 105 2.68 (2.68) 106 2.87 (2.49)     
Other vegetables IG 55 3.62 (2.62) 51 4.14 (2.37) 156 −.03 −.84, .77 .936
CG 107 3.92 (2.60) 106 4.21 (3.10)     
Fruit IG 55 4.52 (2.56) 52 4.84 (2.39) 156 −.01 −.78, .76 .984
CG 106 5.35 (2.75) 106 5.23 (2.75)     
Other fruits IG 55 2.65 (2.32) 50 3.21 (2.35) 154 .36 −.43, 1.15 .369
CG 106 3.83 (2.75) 106 3.50 (2.71)     
Potato chips IG 52 1.36 (1.29) 52 1.33 (1.05) 152 .26 −.01, .53 .057
CG 106 1.33 (.98) 106 1.10 (.76)     
Candy IG 52 1.55 (1.02) 52 1.41 (.93) 151 .22 −.01, .45 .062
CG 105 1.46 (1.17) 106 1.20 (.69)     
Soda with sugar IG 49 1.95 (1.94) 51 1.47 (1.61) 143 .04 −.35, .43 .841
CG 102 1.64 (1.78) 103 1.33 (1.30)     
Fruit squash IG 52 2.27 (2.42) 51 1.75 (2.27) 148 .08 −.49, .65 .779
CG 103 1.59 (1.96) 106 1.40 (1.90)     
Baseline – Time 2      Model 1   
   N   N   N    
Variable    Mean (SD) BL¥   Mean (SD) Time 2   B CI p-value
Vegetables at dinner IG 55 4.55 (2.71) 52 4.95 (2.55) 158 −.02 −.73, .77 .959
CG 107 4.93 (2.52) 108 5.10 (2.57)     
Vegetables on sandwiches IG 55 2.52 (2.51) 52 3.68 (2.65) 155 1.11 .38, 1.85 .003*
CG 105 2.68 (2.68) 107 2.63 (2.28)     
Other vegetables IG 55 3.62 (2.62) 52 4.25 (2.56) 158 .50 −.31, 1.32 .225
CG 107 3.92 (2.60) 108 3.79 (2.68)     
Fruit IG 55 4.52 (2.56) 52 4.94 (2.59) 157 .18 −.62, .98 .656
CG 106 5.35 (2.75) 108 5.11 (2.71)     
Other fruits IG 55 2.62 (2.32) 52 3.15 (2.12) 157 .33 −.38, 1.04 .363
CG 106 3.83 (2.75) 108 3.04 (2.16)     
Potato chips IG 52 1.36 (1.29) 52 1.08 (.86) 153 .05 −.17, .27 .648
CG 106 1.33 (.98) 107 1.04 (.85)     
Candy IG 52 1.55 (1.02) 52 1.38 (1.39) 151 .24 −.08, .55 .135
CG 105 1.46 (1.17) 106 1.18 (.72)     
Soda with sugar IG 49 1.95 (1.94) 52 1.57 (1.79) 145 .36 −.05, .77 .084
CG 102 1.64 (1.78) 105 1.07 (1.02)     
Fruit squash IG 52 2.27 (2.42) 51 1.94 (2.31) 149 .21 −.39, .81 .498
CG 103 1.59 (1.96) 107 1.59 (2.05)     
  1. ¥: BL = baseline
  2. Model 1: adjusted for baseline intake
  3. Time 1 = 5 months into the intervention and Time 2 = at the end of the intervention
  4. *Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05)