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Table 3 Child outcomes at 6-months grouped by intervention and comparison groups

From: Community health workers impact on maternal and child health outcomes in rural South Africa – a non-randomized two-group comparison study

  Intervention
(n = 565)
Comparison
(n = 574)
Estimated Mean Difference
Intervention vs. Comparison
  Mean SD Mean SD Differencea 95% CI
Growth measures
 Height-for-age Z-score (HAZ)** 0.5 1.6 0.7 1.6 −0.2e,f (−0.4, 0.1)
 Weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.2 0.1 e,f (−0.1, 0.3)
 Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) *** 0.3 1.5 −0.0 1.6 0.3e,f ††† (0.1–0.6)
      Estimated Odds Ratio
Intervention vs. Comparison
  n % n % ORb 95% CI
Growth measures
 Stunted (HAZ < -2 SD) 33 5.9 23 4.1 1.6e,f (0.6, 3.9)
 Underweight (WAZ < −2 SD) 13 2.3 22 3.9 0.4e† (0.1, 1.0)
 Wasting (WHZ < -2SD) *** 27 4.8 56 9.4 0.5†† (0.3, 0.9)
Breastfeeding
 Currently breastfeeding 274 48.5 301 52.4 0.5e,g (0.1, 5.4)
      Estimated Odds Ratio
Intervention vs. Comparison
  n % n % ORc 95% CI
Breastfeeding
 Exclusive Breastfeeding for 3 months 349 61.8 352 61.3 1.6 (0.8, 3.3)
 Exclusive Breastfeeding for 6 months 177 31.3 156 27.2 1.8†† (1.1, 2.9)
 If not breastfeeding exclusively, started mixing formula with Nestum/Baby porridge*** 380 80.3 447 88.3 0.4†† (0.2, 0.8)
Immunizations current* 302 57.5 280 52.0 1.1 (0.8, 1.6)
Vitamin A has been given 140 26.7 139 25.8 1.3 (0.8, 2.0)
Child illness during the past 2 weeks
 Diarrhoea 136 24.1 130 22.7 1.3 (0.9, 1.9)
 Vomiting** 49 8.7 78 13.4 0.5†† (0.3,0.9)
 Cough 250 44.3 279 48.6 0.6†† (0.4, 0.8)
 Shortness of breath 95 16.8 115 20.0 0.8 (0.5, 1.2)
 Fever 157 27.8 188 32.8 0.8 (0.6, 1.1)
 Runny nose** 143 25.3 185 32.2 0.7†† (0.5, 0.9)
Medical Visits (past 3 months)
 Hospital visit** 24 4.3 43 7.5 0.5 (0.3, 1.1)
 Clinic for illness 300 53.1 313 54.5 0.8 (0.6, 1.2)
 Consulted with traditional healer*** 6 1.1 24 4.2 0.2†† (0.1, 0.8)
 Consulted with private doctor* 29 5.1 46 8.0 0.6 (0.3, 1.2)
 Consulted with a private pharmacy*** 29 5.1 79 13.8 0.2†† (0.1, 0.4)
WHO Development
 On/Ahead target vs Behind target 399 93.0 415 91.2 1.3 (0.7, 2.6)
      Estimated Incident Rate Ratio
Intervention vs. Comparison
  n % n % IRRd 95% CI
Total Count of Symptoms during the past 2 weeks
 0 190 33.6 173 30.1 0.8†† (0.7,0.9)
 1 137 24.3 128 22.3
 2 106 18.8 104 18.1
 3 74 13.1 81 14.1
 4 34 6.0 53 9.2
 5 21 3.7 26 4.5
 6 3 0.5 9 1.6
  1. Multivariate regression models controlled for: maternal HIV status, access to electricity and safe water, and having total grant income above 2000 ZAR
  2. * p-value < 0.1,, ** p-value < 0.05, *** p-value < 0.001 (t-tests or χb tests); p-value < 0.1, †† p-value < 0.05, ††† p-value < 0.001 for regression analyses
  3. a Mixed-effects linear regression for continuous outcomes; b Mixed-effects logistic regression for binary outcomes; c Multivariate logistic regression for binary outcomes; d Multivariate negative binomial regression for count outcomes
  4. e Random-intercept for child
  5. f Random-slope for time using unstructured covariance
  6. g Random-slope for time using identity covariance structure