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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the sample by Intervention (n = 636) and comparison (n = 674) groups

From: Community health workers impact on maternal and child health outcomes in rural South Africa – a non-randomized two-group comparison study

  Intervention
(n = 636)
Comparison
(n = 674)
Total
(n = 1310)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Demographic characteristics
 Maternal age, median [range] 24 [14, 46] 23 [14, 50] 24 [14, 50]
 Highest education level, mean (SD) 8.7 (2.9) 8.9 (2.4) 8.8 (2.6)
Employment**
 Employed 48 (7.6) 32 (4.8) 80 (6.1)
 School 123 (19.4) 161 (24.0) 284 (21.8)
 Unemployed 464 (73.1) 478 (71.2) 942 (72.1)
Married or lives with partner* 257 (40.4) 236 (35.1) 493 (37.7)
Total grant income (> 2000 Rand)*** 177 (28.6) 247 (37.9) 424 (33.4)
Total child support grant 577 (92.1) 588 (93.3) 1145 (92.7)
Access to electricity*** 272 (42.8) 553 (82.1) 825 (63.0)
Access to safe water***a 607 (95.4) 264 (39.2) 871 (66.5)
Number of adults in household, mean (SD) 3.4 (1.9) 3.6 (2.0) 3.5 (2.0)
Number of children in household, mean (SD) 4.0 (1.9) 4.1 (1.9) 4.1 (1.9)
Alcohol
 Use alcohol during pregnancy 48 (7.6) 42 (6.2) 90 (6.9)
 Use alcohol before pregnancy 36 (5.7) 46 (6.8) 82 (6.3)
 Continued to use alcohol after pregnancy discovery 2 (18.2) 6 (37.5) 8 (29.6)
Maternal and Mental health
 Antenatal care 635 (99.8) 672 (99.7) 1307 (99.8)
 Total antenatal visits, mean (SD)*** 4.3 (1.6) 3.9 (1.7) 4.1 (1.7)
 Total previous pregnancies, mean (SD) *** 1.5 (1.6) 1.3 (1.5) 1.4 (1.6)
 Number of live births, mean (SD) 2.1 (1.4) 2.0 (1.4) 2.1 (1.4)
 EPDS, median [range] 5 [0–27] 5 [0–30] 5 [0–30]
 EPDS > 13 79 (12.4) 86 (12.8) 165 (12.6)
 EPDS ≥18 26 (4.1) 31 (4.6) 57 (4.4)
HIV and Reproductive Health Behavior
 Tested for HIV during pregnancy 568 (89.6) 604 (89.9) 1172 (89.5)
 Mothers living with HIV 187 (29.6) 204 (30.4) 391 (30.0)
 Ever receipt ARVs 183 (97.9) 202 (99.5) 385 (98.7)
 ARVs before pregnancy 90 (48.1) 86 (42.4) 176 (45.1)
 ARVs currently (Single pink pill-FDC or TEE) 172 (94.0) 194 (96.5) 366 (95.3)
 Disclosed HIV status 173 (92.5) 184 (90.6) 357 (91.5)
 Husband/boyfriend/partner 28 (16.2) 26 (14.1) 54 (15.1)
 Family (Mother/Sister/Mother-in-law, Other) 137 (79.2) 141 (76.6) 278 (77.9)
 Other (Friend/Mentor-mother/CHW/Neighbor) 8 (4.6) 17 (9.2) 25 (7.0)
 Number of people disclosed to, mean (SD) 1.7 (0.8) 1.8 (0.9) 1.8 (0.8)
Paternal characteristics
 Child lives with father 108 (17.0) 98 (14.5) 206 (15.7)
 Father alcohol use 319 (51.9) 346 (54.7) 665 (53.3)
 Father tobacco use 188 (29.8) 197 (29.8) 385 (29.8)
 Father drug use 32 (5.2) 25 (3.9) 57 (4.5)
 Father living with HIV+ 57 (30.5) 58 (28.6) 115 (29.5)
Breastfeeding
 Breastfeeding at baseline interview 601 (94.5) 644 (95.6) 1245 (95.0)
 Breastfeed within 1 h of birth 546 (85.8) 556 (82.5) 1102 (84.1)
Child outcomes at birth
 Birth in hospital *** b 591 (92.9) 649 (96.3) 1240 (94.7)
 LBW (less than 2500 g) 65 (10.5) 73 (11.2) 138 (10.9)
 WAZ, mean (SD) −0.6 (1.1) −0.6 (1.1) −0.6 (1.1)
 Underweight (WAZ < −2 SD) 57 (9.2) 63 (9.7) 120 (9.5)
 HAZ, mean (SD) 0.2 (1.5) 0.2 (1.5) 0.2 (1.5)
 Stunted (HAZ < −2 SD) 41 (6.5) 48 (7.2) 89 (6.8)
 WHZ, mean (SD) −1.8 (2.3) −1.6 (2.2) −1.7 (2.2)
 Wasting (WHZ < -2 SD) 220 (37.2) 213 (33.5) 433 (35.3)
 Apgar Score at 5 min, mean (SD) 10.0 (0.7) 9.9 (0.8) 10.0 (0.8)
 Apgar Score at 5 min (7 and above) 588 (99.5) 641 (98.8) 1229 (99.1)
  1. * p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01
  2. a Safe water includes rainwater tank, communal tap running water, communal tap hand pump, hospital tap, running water tap on land, and non-safe water consists of river and well; b Hospital/clinic or on the way to hospital vs. Home
  3. Abbreviations: EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). LBW Low birth weight (LBW); WAZ Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). HAZ Length/height-for-age z-score (HAZ)