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Table 2 Associations between social determinants and the presence of each chronic disease and multi-morbidity among adults, n = 3280

From: Associations between social determinants and the presence of chronic diseases: data from the osteoarthritis Initiative

Social determinant Chronic disease
Arthritis Asthma Cancer COPD Diabetes Heart attack Multi-morbiditya
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
 
Age (≥ 65 vs. <  65 years) 0.92 (0.73–1.15) 0.61 (0.47–0.80) 1.24 (0.86–1.80) 1.12 (0.76–1.64) 1.98* (1.48–2.65) 1.96** (1.30–2.95) 1.46** (1.17–1.83)
Sex (Men vs. Women) 1.39** (1.14–1.70) 0.72 (0.57–0.92) 1.41*** (1.02–1.96) 1.37 (0.97–1.94) 1.76* (1.36–2.29) 2.24* (1.56–3.23) 1.06 (0.89–1.27)
African American/Asian/Other vs. Caucasian 2.71* (2.23–3.48) 1.00 (0.75–1.34) 1.22 (0.81–1.83) 1.40 (0.94–2.10) 2.56* (1.92–3.42) 1.93** (1.28–2.91) 0.58 (0.47–0.71)
≤ Primary school vs. ≥ high school 2.00** (1.27–3.13) 1.70 (0.98–2.95) 0.81 (0.34–1.94) 2.15*** (1.12–4.12) 1.14 (0.64–2.02) 0.96 (0.43–2.12) 0.74 (0.61–0.92)
Unemployed vs. employed 1.26*** (1.01–1.57) 1.23 (0.95–1.59) 1.73** (1.21–2.48) 1.58*** (1.10–2.30) 1.13 (0.86–1.50) 1.70** (1.15–2.53) 0.62 (0.52–0.75)
Unmarried/widow/divorced vs. married 1.41*** (1.06–1.87) 1.75** (1.26–2.42) 2.77** (1.79–4.29) 2.76* (1.76–4.32) 1.86** (1.31–2.64) 3.34* (2.13–5.23) 1.11 (0.80–1.45)
Live alone vs. live with others 0.77 (0.57–1.05) 0.67 (0.47–0.96) 0.52 (0.33–0.84) 0.51 (0.31–0.82) 0.57 (0.39–0.83) 0.28 (0.67–0.47) 1.08 (0.80–1.45)
Annual Income in USD (< 50,000 vs. ≥ 50,000) 1.33*** (1.07–1.65) 1.12 (0.87–1.45) 0.94 (0.66–1.35) 1.05 (0.72–1.52) 1.44** (1.09–1.89) 1.19 (0.81–1.74) 1.38* (1.09–1.75)
Overweight/obese vs. normal weight 1.31 (0.96–1.79) 1.44 (0.98–2.11) 0.91 (0.55–1.49) 1.07 (0.65–1.76) 2.28** (1.43–3.63) 1.33 (0.77–2.30) 0.67 (0.55–0.80)
Current/former smoker vs. never 1.57** (1.20–2.05) 1.16 (0.85–1.59) 2.47** (1.52–4.00) 2.53** (1.58–4.05) 1.05 (0.75–1.47) 1.63*** (1.02–2.58) 1.24** (1.02–1.51)
Alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) 1.32*** (1.02–1.72) 1.16 (0.84–1.58) 1.45 (0.93–2.27) 1.65*** (1.07–2.54) 1.50*** (1.08–2.10) 1.54 (0.98–2.41) 1.24*** (1.01–1.52)
  1. Each model for social determinant factor was adjusted for other social determinants
  2. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OR Odds ratio, CI Conference interval
  3. *p < .001; **p = .001; ***p < .05
  4. aMulti-morbidity was defined as two or more chronic diseases, such as arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes, and heart attack