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Table 1 Respondent characteristics

From: Hypertension and diabetes in Zanzibar – prevalence and access to care

Characteristics [mean (SEM) or unweighted n (%)] Total Women Men
2146 (100%) 1354 (53.1%) 792 (46.9%)
Age (years) [mean] 38.4 [0.30] 37.6 [0.34] 39.2 [0.51]
BMI (kg/m2) [mean] 24.5 [0.18] 25.3 [0.24] 23.5 [0.25]
Blood pressure (mmHg), measured
 Systolic blood pressure [mean] 130.2 [0.72] 127.7 [1.00] 132.9 [1.03]
 Diastolic blood pressure [mean] 77.8 [0.44] 77.7 [0.59] 79 [13.9]
 BP ≥140/90 mmHg 340 (29.8%) 221 (28.5%) 119 (31.4%)
Age groups
 25–34 years 717 (40.0%) 469 (41.1%) 248 (38.7%)
 35–49 years 897 (43.0%) 593 (45.1%) 304 (40.7%)
 50–64 years 532 (17.0%) 292 (13.7%) 240 (20.6%)
Blood glucose (mmol/L), measured
 Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) [mean] 4.41 [0.05] 4.36 [0.08] 4.48 [0.07]
 Impaired FBG 65 (2.5%) 41 (1.9%) 24 (3.2%)
 Diabetic FBG (at or above 6.1 mmol/L) 99 (3.9%) 61 (3.7%) 38 (4.0%)
Marital status
 single, never married 138 (9.3%) 60 (0.06%) 78 (13.3%)
 married or cohabiting 1741 (81.3%) 1060 (80.2%) 681 (82.6%)
 divorced or widowed 267 (9.4%) 234 (14.2%) 33 (0.04%)
Residence
 Rural 1337 (50.2%) 826 (49.4%) 511 (51.1%)
 Urban 809 (49.8%) 528 (50.6%) 281 (48.9%)
Education
 No formal education 554 (18.9%) 418 (24.2%) 136 (13.0%)
 Some primary or secondary education 958 (48.8%) 574 (46.9%) 384 (50.9%)
 Secondary education or above completed 634 (32.3%) 362 (28.9%) 272 (36.0%)
Employment status
 No formal employment 846 (34.6%) 769 (56.9%) 77 (9.5%)
 Self-employed 972 (45.5%) 430 (29.4%) 542 (63.8%)
 Formally employed 328 (19.8%) 155 (13.8%) 173 (26.7%)
Tobacco use
 Never smoked 1850 (85.9%) 1310 (97.8%) 540 (72.4%)
 Current smoker 139 (7.3%) 31 (1.4%) 126 (14.0%)
 Former smoker 157 (6.8%) 13 (0.8%) 126 (13.6%)
Sedentary time/day
 Less than 3 h 1459 (69.1%) 916 (68.3%) 543 (70.1%)
 3 h or more 687 (30.9%) 438 (31.7%) 249 (29.9%)
Physical activity level/week
 At or above 600 METs 1488 (69.4%) 856 (63.3%) 632 (79.8%)
 Below 600 METs 656 (30.6%) 496 (36.7%) 160 (20.2%)
BMI classification
 Underweight 153 (8.1%) 110 (8.5%) 70 (7.9%)
 Normal weight 1180 (54.7%) 659 (48.8%) 494 (61.2%)
 Overweight 474 (22.3%) 306 (22.2%) 168 (22.3%)
 Obese 339 (14.9%) 279 (20.4%) 60 (8.7%)
Total cholesterol
 Raised (≥5 mmol/L) 593 (25.8%) 446 (31.0%) 147 (19.8%)
Previous diagnosed with diabetes 40 (1.7%) 20 (1.2%) 20 (2.2%)
Mental ill health 152 (6.9%) 118 (8.7%) 34 (4.9%)
Has hypertension (as per study definition) 813 (33.5%) 515 (35.5%) 298 (32.8%)
Has diabetes (as per study definition) 114 (4.7%) 69 (4.6%) 45 (4.7%)
Previously had BP measured 1151 (50.0%) 872 (69.9%) 279 (32.3%)
Previously had FBG measured 382 (16.4%) 249 (17.9%) 133 (14.5%)
  1. Data are displayed as mean (and standard error) or percentage (and number of participants). All percentages are calculated using weighted variables. Numbers of participants are non weighted. Study definition of hypertension: Previously diagnosed with hypertension by health care worker, or a measured SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg during the survey. Study definition of diabetes: Previously diagnosed with diabetes by health care worker, or a measured FBG ≥ 6.1 mmol/L during the survey