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Table 5 Results of the Ordinal Logistic Regression Model for Variables Predicting Parents’ Perceived Changes in Children’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior from the pre-COVID-19 period (February 2020) to the Early-COVID-19 period (April–May 2020)

From: Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S.

  Perceived Changes in Physical Activity Perceived Changes in Sedentary Behavior
Estimate (SE) p-value Odds Ratio OR 95% CI Estimate (SE) p-value Odds Ratio OR 95% CI
Intercept 1 (much more) −2.697 (1.384) 0.051    −0.210 (1.404) 0.613   
Intercept 2 (somewhat more) −1.750 (1.375) 0.203    0.658 (1.403) 0.639   
Intercept 3 (about the same) −0.863 (1.371) 0.529    1.475 (1.407) 0.294   
Intercept 4 (somewhat less) 0.160 (1.369) 0.907    2.530 (1.425) 0.076   
Child age
 9–13 years (vs. 5–8 years) 0.838 (0.277) 0.003 2.312 [1.342, 3.979] −0.623 (0.280) 0.026 0.536 [0.309, 0.929]
Child sex
 Female (vs. Male) −0.269 (0.274) 0.327 0.068 [0.447, 1.307] 0.003 (0.279) 0.992 1.003 [0.581, 1.731]
Child ethnicity
 Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic) 0.867 (0.411) 0.035 2.389 [1.064, 5.323] −0.364 (0.403) 0.367 0.695 [0.316, 1.531]
Parent work status
 Full-time (vs. not Full-time) −0.120 (0.294) 0.682 0.887 [0.498, 1.578] −0.088 (0.299) 0.769 0.916 [0.510, 1.645]
Parent marital status
 Married (vs. not Married) 0.454 (0.449) 0.312 1.575 [0.654, 3.792] 0.640 (0.474) 0.177 1.896 [0.749, 4.802]
Household Income (>$95,000 is ref.)
  < $24,999 −0.658 (0.981) 0.502 0.518 [0.076, 3.540] 1.001 (0.987) 0.316 2.721 [0.385, 19.20]
 $25,000 - $54,999 0.796 (0.674) 0.238 2.217 [0.591, 8.306] −0.715 (0.716) 0.318 0.489 [0.120, 1.992]
 $55,000 - $94,999 0.129 (0.367) 0.726 1.138 [0.554, 3.540] 0.340 (0.370) 0.358 1.404 [0.680, 2.901]
  1. n = 188 for perceived changes in physical activity, and n = 187 for perceived changes in sedentary behavior. For dependent variable, the reference group is much less. SE = Standard error. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval