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Table 4 Causal mediation analysis of attitudes between exposure to advertising and use susceptibilitya

From: Exposure to e-cigarette advertising, attitudes, and use susceptibility in adolescents who had never used e-cigarettes or cigarettes

  Indirect effects Relative effects %
(95% CI)b (95% CI)
Mediation effects
 Uncertain that EC use harms health 1.02 (1.01, 1.04)*** 3.1 (0.7, 5.4)
 Tolerant attitudes towards EC use 1.06 (1.03, 1.09)*** 8.2 (3.4, 14.3)
 The tobacco industry is respectable 1.03 (1.01, 1.06)*** 4.9 (1.6, 8.6)
 Joint effects c 1.12 (1.07, 1.17)*** 16.3 (9.5, 24.6)
Direct effect 1.78 (1.40, 2.20)*** 83.4 (75.7, 90.1)
Total effect 2.00 (1.56, 2.48)***
  1. ***P < 0.001
  2. aNot exposed to EC advertising = 0 and exposed to EC advertising = 1; not susceptible to EC use = 0 and susceptible to EC use = 1
  3. bAdjusted odds ratio, with adjustment for sex, grade, perceived family affluence, parental cigarette/EC use and school clustering effects. CI = confidence interval
  4. cJoint effects of the three mediators