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Table 5 Mean ranks in health variables between light-, moderate-, and heavy- users of screens by total screen time per day and individual screen-based device

From: From TVs to tablets: the relation between device-specific screen time and health-related behaviors and characteristics

  Total screen time per day Television Television-connected device Laptop Smartphone Tablet
Mean Rank N Mean Rank N Mean Rank N Mean Rank N Mean Rank N Mean Rank N
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Light users 411.99 295 441.37 220 439.48 287 447.14 289 430.93 307 459.90 769
 Moderate users 489.27 310 453.48 372 452.94 231 444.63 273 489.23 252 _ _
 Heavy users 479.02* 316 475.89 324 480.95 403 484.61 359 466.85 362 466.58 152
Physical activity
 Light users 490.16 295 506.63 222 459.36 288 458.87 292 478.94 308 467.25 774
 Moderate users 480.44 311 457.84 371 484.85 231 462.54 272 462.09 251 _ _
 Heavy users 419.29ˆ 318 430.70* 326 451.99 405 465.41 360 448.91 365 438.01 150
Self-rated health
 Light users 495.95 296 475.05 222 487.69 288 471.16 292 498.91 308 464.68 774
 Moderate users 478.67 311 477.04 372 475.61 232 484.83 274 454.59 252 _ _
 Heavy users 418.60ˆ 319 433.21** 327 439.42* 406 441.81 360 439.83* 366 457.48 152
Hours of sleep
 Light users 486.60 295 471.67 222 491.22 288 470.21 292 486.33 308 471.85 774
 Moderate users 479.86 311 475.60 371 463.80 231 465.47 272 465.43 251 _ _
 Heavy users 423.17ˆ 318 434.30 326 441.34* 405 454.00 360 440.38 365 414.28* 150
Sleep quality
 Light users 487.59 295 451.80 222 474.48 288 463.27 292 497.47 308 463.06 774
 Moderate users 464.60 311 473.43 371 485.91 231 477.34 272 458.18 251 _ _
 Heavy users 437.17* 318 450.31 326 440.63 405 450.66 360 435.97* 365 459.59 150
Perceived stress
 Light users 434.01 296 458.40 222 420.70 288 467.40 292 411.18 308 464.14 774
 Moderate users 428.74 311 436.89 372 443.80 232 436.72 274 436.56 252 _ _
 Heavy users 524.75ˆ 319 490.19** 327 505.12ˆ 406 480.72 360 526.08ˆ 366 460.25 152
  1. Note. *Heavy users statistically different than light users at α < 0.05; **Heavy users statistically different than moderate users at α < 0.05; ˆHeavy users statistically different than moderate and light users at α < 0.05; Moderate users statistically different than light users at α < 0.05