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Table 3 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the associations between chronic widespread pain, common mental disorders and unemployment (> 90 days) in the whole sample (n = 7884) and of the co-twins discordant for exposure (n = 324)

From: Adverse outcomes of chronic widespread pain and common mental disorders in individuals with sickness absence – a prospective study of Swedish twins

  Unemployment (>  90 days)
Crude Model 1a Model 2b Co-twin modelc
CWP and/or CMDs
 No CWP and CMDs 1 1 1 1
 Having CWP but no CMDs 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.15 (0.89–1.48) 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 0.77 (0.32–1.85)
 No CWP but having CMDs 1.38 (1.19–1.60) 1.40 (1.21–1.62) 1.36 (1.17–1.58) 1.14 (0.67–1.92)
 Having both CWP and CMDs 1.38 (0.92–2.07) 1.32 (0.88–1.97) 1.18 (0.79–1.78) 1.53 (0.54–4.33)
  1. * CWP Chronic Widespread pain, CMDs Common mental disorders
  2. a Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, education, children living at home, type of living area, and cohort
  3. b Model 2: adjusted for sex, age, education, children living at home, type of living area, cohort, self-rated health, pain, headache, migraine, and cancer
  4. c Co-twin model: adjusted for age and familial (genetic and shared environmental) factors by matching