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Table 2 Stratified meta-analyses of the proportion of MSM who use nitrite inhalants in China

From: Association of nitrite inhalants use and unprotected anal intercourse and HIV/syphilis infection among MSM in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Category Subgroup Number of studies Proportion estimate (%) and 95% CI Heterogeneity
I2 P-value
Study period 2011–2013 6 27.7 (21.8, 33.7) 95.8% < 0.01
2014–2016 7 18.9 (14.3, 23.5) 97.1% < 0.01
Study site Northern China 6 26.0 (21.1, 31.0) 95.9% < 0.01
Southern China 5 22.4 (14.6, 30.2) 97.7% < 0.01
Othera 4 22.5 (15.8, 29.2) 97.6% < 0.01
Sample size ≤1000 7 28.4 (20.4, 36.3) 97.1% < 0.01
> 1000 8 20.3 (15.8, 24.8) 98.0% < 0.01
Data collection method Self-administrated questionnaire 6 25.2 (17.2, 33.3) 98.2% < 0.01
Face-to-face interview 9 23.1 (19.3, 26.9) 96.5% < 0.01
Recall window of nitrite inhalants use (months) 3 6 23.7 (18.3, 29.2) 96.1% < 0.01
6 7 22.0 (16.4, 27.5) 98.1% < 0.01
12 2 31.4 (11.3, 51.5) 98.3% < 0.01
Publication language English 7 27.6 (20.0, 35.2) 98.5% < 0.01
Chinese 8 20.8 (16.9, 24.8) 96.0% < 0.01
  1. a These studies were not conducted in one district; Zhao et al. (2017) was a nation-wide online survey, Wang et al. (2017) was conducted in Beijing and Nanjing, Dong (2017) was conducted in Shanghai and Tianjin, and Li (2014) was conducted in seven cities in China