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Table 2 Distribution of salaried men from early, middle, and late working life cohorts (WLCs; N = 4564) across sickness absence trajectories (> 15 accumulated days on sickness absence per quarter) by employment conditions, occupational category, diagnosis groups, and the prior 10-year labour market participation patterns in Catalonia, 2012–2014

From: Sickness absence trajectories following labour market participation patterns: a cohort study in Catalonia (Spain), 2012–2014

MEN Early WLC (N = 1315) Middle WLC (N = 1747) Late WLC (N = 1502)
Low stable (88.1%) High stable (8.7%) Increasing (3.2%) pa Low stable (83.3%) Decreasing (5.4%) Increasing (11.3%) pa Low stable (82.9%) High stable (16.3%) Increasing (0.8%) pa
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Type of contract
 Permanent contract 923 (79.6) 90 (78.9) 31 (73.8) .652 1228 (84.5) 81 (85.3) 162 (81.8) .607 1114 (89.5) 212 (86.5) 12 (100.0) .191
 Temporary contract 236 (20.4) 24 (21.1) 11 (26.2) 226 (15.5) 14 (14.7) 36 (18.2) 131 (10.5) 33 (13.5) 0
Working time
 Full-time 1018 (87.8) 101 (88.6) 35 (83.3) .551b 1311 (90.1) 84 (88.4) 178 (89.9) .245 1167 (93.7) 233 (95.1) 10 (83.4) .129b
 Part-time: > 50% up to 99% 66 (5.7) 7 (6.1) 5 (11.9) 72 (5.0) 4 (4.2) 5 (2.5) 33 (2.7) 8 (3.3) 1 (8.3)
   ≤ 50% 75 (6.5) 6 (5.3) 2 (4.8) 71 (4.9) 7 (7.4) 15 (7.6) 45 (3.6) 4 (1.6) 1 (8.3)
Occupational category
 Skilled non-manual 137 (11.8) 7 (6.1) 2 (4.8) .167 232 (16.0) 14 (14.7) 21 (10.6) .224 252 (20.3) 46 (18.9) 1 (8.4) .161b
 Skilled manual 514 (44.4) 46 (40.4) 22 (52.3) 599 (41.1) 40 (42.1) 91 (46.0) 502 (40.3) 94 (38.4) 3 (25.0)
 Unskilled non-manual 348 (30.0) 41 (36.0) 10 (23.8) 440 (30.3) 26 (27.4) 68 (34.3) 382 (30.7) 76 (31.2) 4 (33.3)
 Unskilled manual 160 (13.8) 20 (17.5) 8 (19.1) 183 (12.6) 15 (15.8) 18 (9.1) 108 (8.7) 28 (11.5) 4 (33.3)
Income in quartiles
 Highest 347 (29.9) 28 (24.6) 9 (21.4) .131 427 (29.3) 24 (25.3) 48 (24.2) .260 349 (28.1) 55 (22.4) 4 (33.3) .314b
 Third 359 (31.0) 32 (28.1) 11 (26.2) 466 (32.1) 34 (35.8) 56 (28.3) 400 (32.1) 96 (39.2) 5 (41.7)
 Second 290 (25.0) 34 (29.8) 10 (23.8) 344 (23.7) 25 (26.3) 55 (27.8) 324 (26.0) 58 (23.7) 2 (16.7)
 Lowest 163 (14.1) 20 (17.5) 12 (28.6) 217 (14.9) 12 (12.6) 39 (19.7) 172 (13.8) 36 (14.7) 1 (8.3)
Diagnosis group (ICD-10)
 Mental 151 (14.8) 17 (15.9) 10 (23.8) .467 146 (11.9) 14 (15.9) 29 (16.5) .001 107 (10.4) 26 (12.3) 1 (9.1) .051b
 Digestive 94 (9.2) 7 (6.6) 4 (9.5) 188 (15.3) 3 (3.4) 9 (5.1) 184 (17.9) 19 (9.1) 2 (18.1)
 Musculoskeletal 264 (25.9) 27 (25.2) 12 (28.6) 316 (25.7) 21 (23.9) 50 (28.4) 313 (30.5) 76 (36.4) 3 (27.3)
 Injuries and poisoning 297 (29.2) 38 (35.5) 12 (28.6) 333 (27.1) 30 (34.1) 59 (33.5) 149 (14.5) 35 (16.8) 3 (27.3)
 Others 213 (20.9) 18 (16.8) 4 (9.5) 245 (20.0) 20 (22.7) 29 (16.5) 274 (26.7) 53 (25.4) 2 (18.2)
Labour market articipation patterns
 Stable employment 735 (63.4) 68 (59.7) 30 (71.4) .309 1045 (71.9) 72 (75.8) 147 (74.2) .587 1013 (81.4) 197 (80.4) 11 (91.7) .923b
 Increasing employment 258 (22.3) 27 (23.7) 4 (9.5) 213 (14.7) 8 (8.4) 28 (14.1) 69 (5.5) 16 (6.5) 0
 Fluctuant employment (early)/decreasing employment (middle and late) 166 (14.3) 19 (16.7) 8 (19.1) 90 (6.2) 5 (5.3) 10 (5.1) 56 (4.5) 8 (3.3) 0
 N/A (early)/Steeply decreasing employment (middle and late) N/A N/A N/A 106 (7.3) 10 (10.5) 13 (6.6) 107 (8.6) 24 (9.8) 1 (8.3)
 Total 1159 (100) 114 (100) 42 (100)   1454 (100) 95 (100) 198 (100)   1245 (100) 245 (100) 12 (100)  
  1. Missing values in the occupational category (OC), income (I), and diagnosis group (DG): N (%) in the early cohort (low stable—DG: 1 (0.09); high stable—DG: 2 (1.75)); middle cohort (low stable—DG: 3 (0.21)); and late cohort (low stable—OC: 1 (0.08); DG: 2 (0.16); high stable—OC: 1 (0.41)) by sickness absence trajectory in the period 2012–2014. Income in quartiles based on the average monthly income in the early cohort (high: 5247€; middle-high: 2205€; middle-low: 1560€; low: 1076€), middle cohort (high: 6577€; middle-high: 2724€; middle-low: 1845€; low: 1264€), and late cohort (high: 6339€; middle-high: 3094€; middle-low: 2027€; low: 1419€). aChi-squared tests. bFisher’s exact tests.