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Table 1 Descriptive statistics cross-sectional samples

From: Income and wealth as determinants of voluntary private health insurance: empirical evidence in Spain, 2008–2014

Variable Categories 2008 2011 2014
Sex of the head of family (Female) 49.6% 45.1% 46.4%
Age of the head of family 52.9 (52.2–53.6) 53.9 (53.2;54.7) 54.5 (53.8–55.2)
Percentage of families whose head of family declares bad or very bad health in last 12 months 7.6% 8.7% 8.2%
Number of children (< 14 years) in the family No children 73.3% 73.1% 73.4%
1 child 15.2% 16.0% 16.0%
2 children 10.0% 9.2% 9.0%
> 2 children 1.5% 1.7% 1.6%
Educational level of the head of family No studies or primary unfinished 38.8% 39.6% 37.3%
Primary 17.0% 13.2% 13.6%
Secondary 26.5% 27.5% 26.3%
University 17.7% 19.7% 22.8%
Expected future income higher than current income 22.5% 20.2% 21.0%
Equivalent Income (in euros) 18,582 (17,846;19,317) 19,766 (18,923;20,609) 18,398 (17,550;19,246)
Equivalent wealth (in euros) 170,012 (159,715;180,308) 161,904 (151,921;171,886) 158,903 (143,670;174,136)
Estimated voluntary private health insurance prices (annual average expenditure per household in euros) 897.33 (881.96; 912.71) 849.48 (833.90; 865.06) 960.84 (942.97; 978.70)
Health Insurance The family has health insurance 13.2% 14.5% 14.3%
  1. For continuous variables, the table reports mean and linearized standard error. For categorical variables, % in each category. Calculations made with sampling weights