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Table 4 Multivariable random–effects logistic regression of factors associated with ART utilization in HIV positive caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children in Tanzania, 2018

From: ART use and associated factors among HIV positive caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children in Tanzania

Covariate All (N = 74,999) Women (N = 54,170) Men (N = 20,829)
Odds ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI)
Lower Limit Upper Limit Lower Limit Upper Limit Lower Limit Upper Limit
Caregiver sex
 Female 1.00
 Male 0.92 0.83 1.02
Age group (in Years)
 19–29 1.00 1.00 1.00
 30–39 1.11 0.94 1.31 1.05 0.87 1.27 **1.63 1.13 2.35
 40–49 **1.18 1.00 1.40 1.06 0.88 1.28 ***2.04 1.42 2.92
 50–59 1.16 0.97 1.39 0.99 0.80 1.22 ***2.14 1.47 3.12
 60+ 0.86 0.71 1.04 **0.70 0.56 0.87 **1.71 1.16 2.52
Marital status
 Married or living together 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Divorced or separated 0.96 0.85 1.09 0.93 0.81 1.07 1.00 0.77 1.29
 Never been married 0.91 0.77 1.08 *0.84 0.70 1.02 1.50 0.87 2.61
 Widowed 0.95 0.85 1.06 0.95 0.84 1.08 0.93 0.73 1.17
Education attained
 Never been to school 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary ***1.26 1.13 1.41 ***1.27 1.12 1.45 **1.30 1.04 1.62
 Secondary or higher 1.09 0.86 1.38 1.12 0.85 1.48 1.08 0.68 1.72
Wealth Quintile
 Lowest (Q1) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second ***1.39 1.20 1.61 **1.31 1.11 1.54 ***1.98 1.42 2.78
 Middle **0.84 0.74 0.95 **0.83 0.72 0.96 0.93 0.71 1.21
 Fourth **0.88 0.77 1.00 *0.87 0.75 1.01 1.10 0.86 1.40
 Highest (Q5) 0.98 0.85 1.13 0.91 0.77 1.09 *1.26 0.99 1.61
Place of residence
 Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Urban ***0.70 0.61 0.81 ***0.69 0.59 0.80 **0.72 0.56 0.91
Household food security status
 Insecure 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Secure ***1.29 1.15 1.45 **1.23 1.07 1.41 ***1.61 1.28 2.03
Family has health insurance (CHF/TIKA)?
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes **1.19 1.04 1.36 1.09 0.94 1.28 **1.43 1.11 1.83
Mentally or physically disabled?
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes ***0.58 0.45 0.76 **0.68 0.48 0.97 ***0.37 0.23 0.58
  Number of Caregivers = 74,999; Number of Villages = 5532; min = 1, avg. = 13.6, max = 455; Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.40 Number of Caregivers = 54,170; Number of Villages = 5258; min = 1, avg. = 10.3, max = 358; Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.40 Number of Caregivers = 20,829; Number of Villages = 4147; min = 1, avg. = 5.0, max = 136; Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.44
  1. Significance: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.050, *p < 0.10