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Table 4 Determinants of overweight/obesity among urban women in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 P for trend
aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Women’s education
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.126
  Primary school 1.65 (1.02, 2.65) 1.64 (0.89, 3.03) 1.24 (0.84, 1.83) 1.19 (0.86, 1.64) 1.33 (1.06,1.68) 0.157
  Secondary and higher 2.69 (1.27, 5.71) 1.58 (0.72, 3.48) 1.66 (1.04, 2.67) 1.14 (0.71, 1.84) 1.61 (1.18, 2.21) 0.013
 Women’s employment
  No employment 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.162
  Formal employment 1.26 (0.81, 1.96) 1.31 (0.81, 2.13) 1.02 (0.75, 1.38) 1.42 (1.06, 1.90) 1.23 (1.02, 1.47) 0.044
  Informal employment 0.74 (0.39, 1.43) 0.45 (0.17, 1.19) 0.79 (0.50, 1.25) 0.62 (0.43, 0.90) 0.69 (0.53, 0.90) 0.612
 Women’s status
  Not married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.182
  Currently married 1.51 (0.71, 3.23) 2.11 (0.95, 4.69) 2.03 (1.26, 3.26) 2.07 (1.35, 3.18) 1.87 (1.43, 2.46) 0.057
  Formerly married 1.34 (0.54, 3.32) 2.00 (1.03, 3.83) 1.15 (0.51, 2.58) 1.54 (1.05, 2.26) 1.32 (0.94, 1.86) 0.064
 Household wealth status
  Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.534
  Middle 1.43 (0.98, 2.10) 2.97 (1.69, 5.24) 3.12 (1.21, 8.03) 0.94 (0.16, 5.63) 1.46 (1.06, 1.90) 0.008
  Rich 0.67 (0.31, 1.48) 3.52 (1.83, 6.77) 3.80 (1.97, 7.33) 4.43 (1.82, 10.79) 1.64 (1.21, 2.22) 0.001
Demographic factors
 Women’s age
  15–24 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.357
  25–34 years 1.65 (0.90, 3.00) 2.43 (1.47, 3.99) 2.05 (1.34, 3.16) 2.00 (1.33, 3.02) 2.05 (1.63, 2.59) 0.044
  35–49 years 3.50 (1.60, 7.69) 2.53 (1.17, 5.43) 4.64 (2.82, 7.63) 4.35 (2.90, 6.53) 4.47 (3.39, 5.88) 0.115
 Parity
  None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.432
  1–4 children 0.97 (0.53, 1.77) 0.89 (0.47, 1.67) 1.12 (0.70, 1.78) 1.21 (0.76, 1.94) 1.10 (0.84, 1.44) 0.004
  5+ children 0.72 (0.35, 1.47) 1.25 (0.42, 3.77) 0.94 (0.48, 1.87) 0.82 (0.42, 1.61) 0.80 (0.55, 1.17) 0.054
Behavioural factors
 Listening radio
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.072
  Yes 0.88 (0.48, 1.62) 0.63 (0.30, 1.35) 0.70 (0.47, 1.04) 0.69 (0.54, 0.88) 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.009
 Read magazine
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.541
  Yes 0.67 (0.42, 1.08) 1.12 (0.64, 1.95) 1.04 (0.78, 1.39) 1.56 (1.14, 2.14) 1.12 (0.93, 1.35) < 0.001
 Watch television
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.959
  Yes 1.66 (0.96, 2.87) 1.43 (0.68, 3.03) 2.45 (1.30, 4.60) 2.50 (1.41, 4.45) 2.37 (1.75, 3.21) 0.002
Community-level factors
 Region of residence
  Tigray 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 < 0.001
  Afar 4.54 (2.25, 9.15) 3.66 (0.89, 15.01) 1.08 (0.48, 2.45) 1.34 (0.65, 2.78) 1.71 (1.13, 2.60) 0.760
  Amhara 1.67 (1.15, 6.18) 3.04 (0.83, 11.19) 0.98 (0.42, 2.28) 0.62 (0.35, 1.11) 1.02 (0.68, 1.52) 0.176
  Oromia 4.59 (2.04, 10.33) 3.53 (0.99, 12.45) 1.58 (0.76, 3.27) 1.62 (0.85, 3.10) 1.95 (1.31, 2.91) 0.327
  Somali 6.66 (1.48, 29.4) 6.20 (2.41, 16.00) 5.81 (2.70, 12.52) 3.13 (1.86, 5.26) 4.93 (3.24, 7.49) 0.875
  Benishangul 1.34 (0.20, 8.91) 4.78 (0.98, 23.24) 1.08 (0.46, 2.52) 1.85 (0.98, 3.50) 1.59 (1.01, 2.48) 0.083
  SNNPR 3.87 (0.94, 15.97) 2.44 (0.78, 7.58) 2.39 (1.17, 4.87) 1.29 (0.73, 2.29) 1.89 (1.23, 2.90) 0.802
  Gambella 1.64 (0.64, 4.18) 0.88 (0.26, 2.93) 1.43 (0.56, 3.63) 0.99 (0.56, 1.78) 1.21 (0.76, 1.87) 0.063
  Metropolis 4.20 (2.03, 8.68) 2.45 (0.99, 6.04) 2.15 (1.16, 3.99) 2.14 (1.40, 3.26) 2.35 (1.73, 3.21) < 0.001
  1. aAORs of socioeconomic factors were adjusted for demographic, behavioural and community level factors; AORs of demographic factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, behavioural and community level factors; AORs of behavioural factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and community level factors; AORs of community-level factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioural factors
  2. bSNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region