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Table 3 Determinants of underweight among urban women in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 P for trend
aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI) aAOR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Women’s education
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.005
  Primary school 0.86 (0.56, 1.31) 0.97 (0.44, 2.18) 1.27 (0.83, 1.92) 1.00 (0.57, 1.76) 1.00 (0.82, 1.21) 0.115
  Secondary and higher 1.10 (0.69, 1.78) 0.93 (0.43, 2.03) 0.99 (0.68, 1.47) 1.35 (0.77, 2.37) 1.28 (0.94, 1.74) 0.225
 Women’s employment
  No employment 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.265
  Formal employment 0.73 (0.49, 1.08) 0.93 (0.64, 1.36) 0.84 (0.64, 1.11) 0.76 (0.56, 1.04) 0.83 (0.70, 0.97) 0.119
  Informal employment 0.98 (0.50, 1.92) 1.02 (0.61, 1.70) 0.86 (0.57, 1.27) 0.73 (0.44, 1.22) 0.90 (0.69, 1.17) 0.021
 Marital status
  Not married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.330
  Currently married 0.73 (0.42, 1.26) 0.38 (0.17, 0.84) 0.59 (0.24, 1.42) 0.82 (0.45, 1.48) 0.63 (0.44, 0.91) 0.001
  Formerly married 1.12 (0.69, 1.81) 0.90 (0.45, 1.81) 0.74 (0.32, 1.71) 1.77 (0.91, 3.45) 1.05 (0.76, 1.45) 0.132
 Household wealth status
  Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.892
  Middle 0.77 (0.56, 1.06) 0.89 (0.61, 1.30) 0.10 (0.03, 0.31) 2.99 (0.90, 9.97) 0.76 (0.58, 0.99) 0.931
  Rich 0.25 (0.11, 0.55) 0.52 (0.24, 1.11) 0.29 (0.13, 0.68) 0.74 (0.35, 1.56) 0.69 (0.54, 0.89) 0.001
Demographic factors
 Women’s age
  15–24 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.484
  25–34 years 0.94 (0.62, 1.41) 1.37 (0.70, 2.66) 1.10 (0.78, 1.55) 0.88 (0.58, 1.34) 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 0.028
  35–49 years 1.63 (0.91, 2.92) 0.81 (0.39, 1.68) 1.29 (0.72, 2.32) 1.00 (0.59, 1.70) 1.21 (0.89, 1.66) < 0.001
 Parity
  None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.460
  1–4 children 1.06 (0.69, 1.63) 1.12 (0.46, 2.71) 1.15 (0.53, 2.50) 0.77 (0.46, 1.27) 1.03 (0.74, 1.43) 0.010
  5+ children 1.12 (0.55, 2.28) 1.79 (0.54, 5.92) 1.34 (0.41, 4.40) 0.67 (0.27, 1.65) 1.23 (0.76, 1.99) < 0.001
Behavioural factors
 Listening radio
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.085
  Yes 0.77 (0.67, 1.34) 1.03 (0.61, 1.77) 0.65 (0.49, 0.85) 0.67 (0.45, 0.98) 0.64 (0.66, 0.93) 0.038
 Read magazine
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.004
  Yes 1.28 (0.82, 2.00) 1.04 (0.49, 2.20) 1.06 (0.82, 1.37) 1.23 (0.98, 1.53) 1.14 (0.96, 1.34) 0.116
 Watch television
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.005
  Yes 1.03 (0.79, 1.36) 0.76 (0.50, 1.14) 1.09 (0.82, 1.43) 1.16 (0.61, 2.22) 1.03 (0.84, 1.25) 0.155
Community-level factor
 Region of residence
  Tigray 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.279
  Afar 0.61 (0.41, 0.92) 0.44 (0.17, 1.10) 1.09 (0.68, 1.75) 1.21 (0.78, 1.86) 0.91 (0.67, 1.22) 0.009
  Amhara 1.00 (0.53, 1.88) 0.47 90.23, 0.97) 0.81 (0.39, 1.67) 0.54 (0.32, 0.90) 0.75 (0.51, 1.10) 0.014
  Oromia 0.70 (0.42, 1.16) 0.57 (0.25, 1.33) 0.70 (0.45, 1.11) 0.82 (0.56, 1.19) 0.67 (0.52, 0.86) 0.969
  Somali 3.06 (1.18, 7.89) 0.91 (0.43, 1.93) 0.63 (0.36, 1.11) 0.85 (0.47, 1.53) 1.04 (0.67, 1.63) 0.016
  Benishangul 1.63 (1.04, 2.54) 1.20 (0.32, 4.46) 0.54 (0.29, 1.00) 0.49 (0.20, 1.25) 0.87 (0.63, 1.21) 0.003
  SNNPRb 0.54 (0.23, 1.28) 0.33 (0.16, 0.72) 0.50 (0.27, 0.95) 0.24 (0.14, 0.42) 0.43 (0.30, 0.61) < 0.001
  Gambella 1.17 (0.40, 3.38) 0.93 (0.28, 3.15) 0.72 (0.37, 1.43) 1.32 (0.83, 2.08) 1.10 (0.75, 1.63) 0.521
  Metropolis 0.64 (0.42, 0.99) 0.49 (0.28, 0.84) 0.51 (0.34, 0.76) 0.70 (0.54, 0.92) 0.55 (0.46, 0.67) 0.901
  1. aAORs of socioeconomic factors were adjusted for demographic, behavioural and community level factors; AORs of demographic factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, behavioural and community level factors; AORs of behavioural factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and community level factors; AORs of community-level factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioural factors
  2. bSNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region