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Table 2 Prevalence of overweight/obesity by study variables among urban women in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 2000–2016
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) aDiff (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Women’s education
  No schooling 64 (7.4) 30 (11.5) 105 (13.7) 95 (18.5) 294 (12.2) 11.1 (6.1, 16.2)
  Primary school 64 (10.3) 30 (10.6) 201 (13.1) 228 (21.7) 523 (15.0) 11.3 (5.1, 17.6)
  Secondary and higher 151 (14.2) 98 (17.2) 228 (18.0) 341 (22.2) 818 (18.4) 8.0 (3.1, 12.9)
 Women’s employment
  No employment 109 (9.8) 76 (12.0) 206 (13.7) 219 (17.1) 610 (13.5) 7.3 (2.9, 11.6)
  Formal employment 133 (14.3) 75 (21.1) 258 (18.0) 391 (27.2) 857 (20.6) 12.8 (7.1, 18.6)
  Informal employment 37 (7.4) 6 (5.0) 68 (11.2) 54 (14.3) 165 (10.3) 6.9 (3.5, 13.4)
 Marital status
  Not married 88 (8.1) 43 (8.4) 113 (7.4) 143 (11.2) 388 (8.8) 3.1 (−0.4, 6.6)
  Currently married 144 (14.4) 85 (21.1) 348 (22.1) 414 (29.4) 992 (22.6) 14.9 (8.3, 21.6)
  Formerly married 47 (9.9) 29 (15.5) 72 (15.3) 107 (25.5) 256 (16.5) 15.6 (7.7, 23.9)
 Household wealth status
  Poor 135 (8.4) 54 (8.8) 3 (2.8) 3 (2.9) 195 (8.0) −6.8 (−12.3, −1.3)
  Middle 107 (16.6) 54 (21.2)   1 (2.1) 162 (16.6) −10.3 (−16.3, −4.4)
  Rich 8 (11.6) 30 (27.4) 531 (15.4) 661 (22.4) 1229 (18.7) 11.8 (7.5, 16.2)
 Toilet facility
  Unimproved 46 (6.2) 50 (9.6) 205 (10.0) 216 (14.2) 517 (10.7) 8.0 (3.3, 12.7)
  Improved 233 (12.8) 102 (18.1) 325 (21.7) 437 (28.4) 1096 (20.3) 15.6 (10.6, 20.5)
 Source of drinking water
  Unimproved 33 (9.1) 4 (4.3) 37 (12.1) 66 (12.2) 140 (10.8) 3.1 (−4.3, 10.6)
  Improved 246 (11.2) 154 (15.0) 496 (15.2) 599 (23.4) 1496 (16.5) 12.1 (7.7, 16.6)
Demographic factors
 Women’s age
  15–24 years 85 (6.8) 42 (7.4) 128 (7.4) 131 (10.0) 386 (7.9) 3.2 (−0.1, 6.5)
  25–34 years 93 (13.6) 57 (19.9) 197 (18.0) 260 (24.6) 607 (19.4) 11.1 (5.7, 16.4)
  35–49 years 101 (16.5) 58 (22.7) 29 (28.1) 274 (37.4) 642 (27.4) 20.9 (11.8, 30.1)
 Parity
  None 105 (8.5) 57 (9.7) 145 (8.4) 191 (12.6) 498 (9.8) 4.1 (0.5, 7.7)
  1–4 children 115 (13.2) 76 (19.5) 309 (21.2) 408 (31.3) 908 (22.6) 18.1 (12.0, 24.2)
  5+ children 59 (13.3) 25 (18.3) 79 (20.5) 65 (23.3) 229 (18.3) 10.0 (−0.2, 20.2)
Behavioural factors
 Listening radio
  No 49 (7.8) 33 (15.9) 130 (15.4) 261 (19.3) 474 (15.6) 11.5 (6.1, 16.8)
  Yes 230 (12.0) 122 (13.6) 403 (14.9) 403 (23.0) 1158 (15.9) 11.1 (6.8, 15.4)
 Read magazine
  No 157 (10.1) 70 (13.2) 282 (14.3) 382 (18.4) 890 (14.6) 8.3 (3.9, 12.6)
  Yes 122 (12.1) 88 (15.3) 251 (15.8) 283 (27.4) 743 (17.7) 15.3 (10.5, 20.2)
 Watch television
  No 87 (7.2) 29 (9.9) 56 (7.6) 72 (10.1) 244 (8.3) 3.0 (−1.7, 7.6)
  Yes 192 (14.3) 129 (15.7) 477 (16.9) 592 (24.8) 1390 (18.8) 10.5 (6.0, 15.1)
Community-level factors
 Region of residence
  Tigray 6 (2.7) 4 (4.5) 24 (8.8) 41 (16.1) 75 (9.0) 13.4 (7.3, 19.6)
  Afar 4 (12.5) 2 (18.3) 4 (10.1) 6 (19.0) 16 (14.3) 6.5 (−2.8, 15.9)
  Amhara 34 (7.5) 20 (11.3) 74 (8.5) 71 (10.7) 198 (9.2) 3.2 (−2.2, 8.6)
  Oromia 87 (10.7) 48 (14.2) 121 (14.2) 194 (25.1) 451 (16.2) 14.3 (2.5, 26.1)
  Somali 4 (8.3) 11 (26.1) 31 (26.8) 17 (25.0) 62 (23.0) 16.7 (7.7, 25.6)
  Benishangul 1 (2.9) 1 (10.8) 3 (9.0) 5 (20.5) 9 (11.3) 17.6 (11.1, 24.1)
  SNNPRb 27 (10.7) 10 (10.8) 97 (20.5) 60 (16.5) 194 (16.4) 5.8 (−7.8, 19.4)
  Gambella 1 (3.8) 1 (5.2) 3 (13.6) 2 (13.5) 6 (10.9) 9.7 (4.2, 15.1)
  Metropolis 117 (16.1) 62 (17.6) 177 (20.1) 269 (29.4) 625 (21.7) 13.3 (10.5, 16.0)
  1. n (%): weighted count and proportion for each variable
  2. aDiff indicates the point percentage change in prevalence of underweight between 2000 to 2016
  3. bSNNPR: Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region