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Table 1 Characteristics of the intervention studies that included martial arts

From: Effectiveness of martial arts exercise on anthropometric and body composition parameters of overweight and obese subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Quality Country/ Setting Body composition BMI Sample n (total/F); Mean age, years (SD or range); ethnicity Intervention Control Main results D
Tsang et al. [30] 2009 21 medium Australia/Hospital BMI/DEXA ≥85% 20/12; 13.1 (2.1); NR Kung Fu 3 x week - 1 h Tai Chi 3 x week - 1 h Difference between groups: waist circumference, with a lower circumference in the CG. 24
Beebe et al. [31] 2013 11 low USA/University BMI ≥30–49.9 kg/m2 26/26; 61.5 (6.0); NR Tai Chi 3 x week 45 min + NE 1 x week 45 min NE 1 x week 45 min Difference within groups: both groups showed a significant decrease in body-weight, and waist circumference. The CG had a significant decrease in the BMI and hip circumference. 16
Chen et al. [32] 2010 18 medium China/Hospital BMI ≥30–35 kg/m2 117/54; 58.2 (6.0); Asian Tai Chi 3 x week - 1 h Conventional exercises 3 x week - 1 h Difference between groups: BMI, with a decrease in the IG. Difference within groups: the IG showed a significant decrease in the BMI. 12
Chyu et al. [33] 2013 20 medium USA/Community BMI/bioimpedance ≥25 kg/m2 47/47; 40.6 (6.2); NR MAE 3 x week - 1 h Daily activities Difference between groups: FFM and MM, with a lower amount in the IG. 12
Dechamps et al. [34] 2009 21 medium France/Hospital BMI/BOD POD ≥30 kg/m2 21/21; 44.4 (11.9); NR Tai Chi 1 x week - 2 h + diet + NI + PI + MI Conventional exercises 1 x week - 2 h + diet + NI + PI + MI Difference between groups: The IG showed a decrease in fat (kg) and percent body fat. 10
Katkowski et al. [35] 2013 15 low USA/Laboratory BMI/DEXA ≥30–49.9 kg/m2 27/27; 61.5 (5.9); NR Tai Chi 3 x week 45 min + NI 1 x week 45 min + diet NI 1 x week 45 min + diet Difference within groups: weight, BMI, fat (kg), percent body fat, and waist circumference, with a decrease in both groups. 16
  1. DEXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BM behavior modification, BMI body mass index, ER energy restriction, F female, PE physical education, NE nutritional education, NI nutritional intervention, PI psychological intervention, MI medical intervention, NR not reported, RT resistance training, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, ST strength training, D Duration in weeks, MAE martial arts exercises, BOD POD air displacement, IG intervention group, CG control group, FFM fat-free mass, MM muscle mass