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Table 3 Results of meta-analyses included in the current study

From: Exercise interventions for the prevention of depression: a systematic review of meta-analyses

Review Comparison N RCTs % unique studies N participants Effect on depressive symptoms 95% CI I2
Brown et al. 2013 [19] Exercise vs control 5 80 581 Hedges’ g = − 0.35** -0.56, − 0.13 60%
Carter et al. 2016 [25] Exercise vs control 5 100 1157 SMD = − 0.52 -1.30, 0.26 83%
Conn 2010 [18] Supervised exercise vs control 38 83 1598 SMD = − 0.37*** − 0.50, − 0.24 45%
Unsupervised exercise vs control 22   1081 SMD = − 0.52*** − 0.77, − 0.28 66%
Forsman et al. 2011 [20] Exercise vs control 3 67 277 SMD = − 0.10 − 0.36, 0.16 0%
Gordon et al. 2018 [26] Exercise vs control 15 93 550 Hedges’ d = −0.81*** −1.29, − 0.33 NP
Larun et al. 2006 [27] Vigorous exercise vs control 5 40 145 SMD = −0.66* −1.25, − 0.08 80%
Park et al. 2014 [28] Exercise vs control 18 94 3297 SMD = −0.36* −0.64, − 0.08 93%
Rethorst et al. 2009 [17] Exercise vs control 40 65 2408 Hedges’ g = −0.59* −0.67, − 0.5 NP
  1. RCTs randomized controlled trials, Exercise physical activity, SMD standardized mean differences, Q denotes instances in which Q-value and significance was provided in absence of I2 statistic, NP not provided
  2. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001