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Table 1 Description of the constructs and the related citations that served as a basis for item generation for the Back-care Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (BABAQ)

From: The Back-care Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (BABAQ) for schoolchildren: development and psychometric evaluation

Construct Items References
Skills (check list)-Score sheet for the practical assessment
  Sitting at a table Spence et al. (1984), Sheldon et al. (1994), Cardon et al. (2000, 2001, 2002, 2007), Heiser et al. (2014) and Santos et al. (2017)
Pick up the crate
Carry the crate
Set the crate down on the table
Pick up a pencil
Move the crate
Book bag use
Knowledge
  General & specific back care knowledge Spence et al. (1984), Sheldon et al. (1994), Cardon et al. (2000, 2001, 2002, 2007), Dolphens et al. (2011), Park et al. (2011), Heiser et al. (2014), Monfort-Pan˜ego et al. (2016) and Santos et al. (2017)
Self-Efficacy
  How easy or difficult: Cardon et al. (2002), Park et al. (2011) and Dolphens et al. (2011)
Daily participation in physical activity
Attaining a natural curve of the spine
Minimal loading of the book bag
Pay attention to ergonomic postures
Expectations beliefs
  Sitting is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache Cardon et al. (2002) and Dolphens et al. (2011)
Swimming is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache
Running is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache
Participation in physical education is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache
Cycling is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache
Lifting heavy objects is ‘dangerous’ when having a backache
Self-reported behavior
  Checking weight of book bag Cardon et al. (2002), Dolphens et al. (2011) and Noll et al. (2013)
Carrying the bag with 2 straps
Elevator use versus taking the stairs
Knee position when putting on shoes
Doing exercises every day
Knee position when lifting
Distance to body when load carrying
No twisting while moving heavy object
Posture in relation to sleeping, sitting in a chair to write, sitting in a chair to talk, using a computer and lifting an object from the ground (BackPEI)