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Table 6 Hygiene behaviour and hygiene conditions [N = 1427]

From: Association of nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene practices with children’s nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and diarrhoea in rural Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Variables Total [n (%)] Surkhet A [n (%)] Surkhet B [n (%)] Dailekh [n (%)] Accham [n (%)] P-value*
Selected KAPa indicators on hygiene
 Handwashing times
  <5 times 408 (28.6) 102 (29.3) 64 (17.5) 101 (28.4) 141 (39.4) <0.001
  5-10 times 935 (65.5) 225 (64.7) 251 (68.8) 251 (70.5) 208 (58.1)  
  10-15 times 61 (4.3) 18 (5.2) 31 (8.5) 4 (1.1) 8 (2.2)  
  > 15 times 23 (1.6) 3 (0.9) 19 (5.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)  
 Handwashing with soap
  <5 times 1084 (76.0) 267 (76.7) 244 (66.8) 278 (78.1) 295 (82.4) <0.001
  5-10 times 337 (23.6) 79 (22.7) 118 (32.3) 78 (21.9) 62 (17.3)  
  10-15 times 5 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)  
  > 15 times 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Handwashingb
  When they look dirty 862 (60.4) 224 (64.4) 254 (70.0) 172 (48.3) 212 (59.2) <0.001
  After going toilet 1402 (98.2) 342 (98.3) 356 (97.5) 354 (99.4) 350 (97.8) 0.21
  After cleaning baby’s bottom 834 (58.4) 170 (48.8) 225 (61.6) 236 (66.3) 203 (56.7) <0.001
  Before eating 1039 (72.8) 259 (74.4) 298 (81.6) 295 (82.9) 187 (52.2) <0.001
  Before cooking 572 (40.1) 170 (48.8) 146 (40.0) 142 (39.9) 114 (31.8) <0.001
  There are not special occasions 2 (0.14) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0.58
  Do not know 3 (0.21) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0.29
 Types of latrines used
  Water pit latrine 1200 (84.1) 322 (92.5) 252 (69.0) 315 (88.5) 311 (86.9) <0.001
  Simple pit latrine 137 (9.6) 12 (3.5) 93 (25.5) 22 (6.2) 10 (2.8)  
  No latrine 90 (6.3) 14 (4.0) 20 (5.5) 19 (5.3) 37 (10.3)  
 Animalc kept inside the household overnight 851 (59.7) 162 (46.5) 174 (47.8) 190 (53.4) 325 (90.8) <0.001
 Hygiene condition of latrine (observation)d
  Lower category 695 (48.7) 213 (61.2) 200 (54.8) 166 (46.6) 116 (32.4) <0.001
  Intermediate category 390 (27.3) 86 (24.7) 54 (14.8) 130 (36.5) 120 (33.5)  
  High category 342 (24.0) 49 (14.1) 111 (30.4) 60 (16.9) 122 (34.1)  
 Hygiene condition of handwashing facilities (observation)e
  Lower category 289 (50.5) 87 (39.9) 148 (67.0) 43 (43.9) 11 (31.4) <0.001
  Intermediate category 97 (17.0) 45 (20.6) 25 (11.3) 22 (22.4) 5 (14.3)  
  High category 186 (32.5) 86 (39.5) 48 (21.7) 33 (33.7) 19 (54.3)  
 Hygiene condition of household environment (observation)f
  Lower category 289 (50.5) 87 (39.9) 148 (67.0) 43 (43.9) 11 (31.4) <0.001
  Intermediate category 97 (17.0) 45 (20.6) 25 (11.3) 22 (22.4) 5 (14.3)  
  High category 186 (39.5) 86 (39.5) 48 (21.7) 33 (33.7) 19 (54.3)  
 Hygiene condition of kitchen (observation)g
  Lower category 481 (33.7) 187 (53.7) 174 (47.7) 75 (21.1) 45 (12.6) <0.001
  Intermediate category 637 (44.6) 128 (36.8) 120 (32.9) 206 (57.9) 183 (51.1)  
  High category 309 (21.6) 33 (9.5) 71 (19.4) 75 (21.1) 130 (36.3)  
 Personal hygiene of participating child and their caregivers (observation)h
  Lower category 611 (42.8) 153 (44.0) 210 (57.5) 167 (46.9) 81 (22.6) <0.001
  Intermediate category 424 (29.7) 92 (26.4) 72 (19.7) 130 (36.5) 130 (36.3)  
  High category 392 (27.5) 103 (29.6) 83 (22.7) 59 (16.6) 147 (41.1)  
 Information received on WASHi promotion
  Received any information on water treatment and hygienej 155 (10.9) 105 (30.2) 13 (3.6) 19 (5.3) 18 (5.0) <0.001
  Information on water treatment and hygiene changed behaviour 139 (89.7) 95 (90.5) 10 (76.9) 17 (89.5) 17 (94.4) 0.42
 Behaviours that changed after receiving information on water treatment and hygienek
  "I purchased a product for water treatment" 16 (1.1) 5 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 9 (2.5) 2 (0.6) <0.001
  "I am now regularly treating water" 32 (2.2) 20 (5.8) 2 (0.5) 9 (2.5) 1 (0.3) <0.001
  "I am now sometimes treating water" 27 (1.9) 23 (6.6) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) <0.001
  "I installed a handwashing station" 35 (2.4) 24 (6.9) 2 (0.8) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8) <0.001
  "I do wash my hands more often" 36 (2.5) 23 (6.6) 3 (0.8) 4 (1.1) 6 (1.7) <0.001
  "I use soap to wash my hands more often" 90 (6.3) 63 (18.1) 6 (1.6) 15 (4.2) 6 (1.7) <0.001
  "I wash my hands at the critical times" 65 (4.6) 51 (14.7) 6 (1.6) 6 (1.7) 2 (0.6) <0.001
  "I regularly disinfect the water storage container with chlorine" 17 (1.2) 15 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) <0.001
  "I regularly wash the water storage container with soap" 21 (1.5) 18 (5.2) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0) <0.001
  "Other behaviour changed" 2 (0.1) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0.56
 Household attended hygiene literacy classl 362 (25.4) 98 (28.2) 87 (23.8) 75 (21.1) 102 (28.5) 0.07
 FCHVsm or other health workers visited household 537 (37.6) 131 (37.6) 115 (31.5) 123 (34.5) 168 (46.9) <0.001
 Total times FCHVs/other health workers visited the household
  Once 468 (87.1) 102 (77.9) 99 (86.1) 112 (91.1) 155 (92.3) <0.001
  Twice 60 (11.2) 28 (21.4) 8 (7.0) 11 (8.9) 13 (7.7)  
  Trice 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
  Four times 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
  Don`t remember 5 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 4 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Effectiveness: HLCn or door to door visit
  Hygiene literacy class (HLC) 73 (23.0) 19 (25.0) 2 (2.5) 8 (11.9) 44 (45.8) <0.001
  Door to door visit 166 (52.2) 48 (63.2) 45 (57.0) 53 (79.1) 20 (20.8)  
  Both 79 (24.8) 9 (11.8) 32 (40.5) 6 (9.0) 32 (33.3)  
  1. a Knowledge, attitude and practice
  2. b Multiple responses possible for the occasions of handwashing
  3. c Animals refers to any domestic animals such as chicken, goats, dogs, cats, cows, buffalos etc
  4. d A new variable for the observed hygiene condition of the toilet was created using factor analysis with conceptually similar categorical variables: (i) is the toilet clean; and (ii) are these materials available (sandals, drum with water, brush, none of these). The condition of toilet was then categorised into three categories with lower, intermediate and high hygiene category
  5. e A new variable for the observed hygiene condition of the handwashing facilities was created using factor analysis with four conceptually similar categorical variables: (i) are handwashing facilities in good condition; and (ii) are handwashing facilities clean (iii) is soap available (iv) is water available. The condition of handwashing facility was then categorised into three categories with lower, intermediate and high hygiene category
  6. f A new variable for the observed hygiene of the household environment condition was created using factor analysis with three conceptually similar categorical variables: (i) can you see trash spread outside the house; (ii) does the household have a garbage pit to dispose garbage (iii) can you see trash spread inside the house? The condition of household environment was then categorised into three categories with lower, middle and better hygiene
  7. g A new variable for the observed hygiene of the kitchen hygiene condition was created using factor analysis with four conceptually similar categorical variables: (i) are clean dishes kept high; (ii) is the entirety of food covered (iii) is there a rack to dry your utensils and dishes after washing and (iv) is there a significant number of flies in the kitchen (>10). The kitchen hygiene was then categorised into three categories with lower, intermediate and high hygiene category
  8. h A new variable for the observed personal hygiene of the caregiver and the participating child was created using factor analysis with four conceptually similar categorical variables of: (i) wearing shoes; (ii) hands are clean (iii) piles of dirty clothes lying around in the house. The personal hygiene was then categorised into three categories with lower, intermediate and high hygiene category
  9. i Water, sanitation and hygiene
  10. j Information from Helvetas (local INGO) or other organizations
  11. k Multiple responses possible
  12. l Hygiene literacy class conducted by female community health volunteers or other health workers
  13. m FCHVs Female community health volunteers
  14. n HLC Hygiene literacy class