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Table 5 Association of factors with parasitic infections in univariate and multivariate logistic regression

From: Association of nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene practices with children’s nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and diarrhoea in rural Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Overall parasitic infection [N (total) =962/ N (cases)=492] Univariate logistic regressiona Multivariate logistic regressionb
OR 95% CI P-value aOR 95% CI P-value
Age of the child < 5 years 1.00    1.00   
> 5 years 0.86 0.66-1.13 0.29 0.86 0.65-1.15 0.31
Sex of the child Male 1.00    1.00   
Female 0.90 0.69-1.17 0.43 0.88 0.66-1.16 0.37
Number of children in the household < 5 1.00      
> 5 2.01 0.49-8.11 0.34    
Caregivers can read/write Can neither read or write 1.09 0.74-1.61   1.18 0.78-1.80  
Can read only 3.15 0.83-12.0 0.18 4.19 1.03-17.0 0.08
Can both read and write 1.00    1.00   
Involvement in the water supply system in the community "no" vs. "yes" 1.89 1.05-3.42 0.03 1.60 0.84-3.05 0.15
Socioeconomic status Poor 1.00    1.00   
Middle 0.88 0.60-1.30 0.27 0.87 0.58-1.31 0.45
Better 1.16 0.75-1.78   1.09 0.68-1.75  
Main drinking water source Piped water in the house 1.00      
Piped water in the village 1.39 0.87-2.21     
Open source 1.33 0.47-3.73 0.29    
Protected source 1.18 0.40-3.49     
River, stream or canal 6.79 0.72-64.33     
Time to fetch drinking water < 5 minutes 1.00      
5-15 minutes 1.53 0.66-3.55 0.40    
16-60 minutes 1.23 0.53-2.78     
> 60 minutes 1.07 0.38-3.01     
Main drinking water source functioning now Functioning well 1.00      
Functioning irregularly 1.24 0.61-1.96 0.76    
Interruption of main drinking water source for more than a week "no" vs. "yes" 1.76 0.91-3.41 0.09 1.30 0.64-2.64 0.47
Knowledge on factors that make water unsafe for drinking Open unprotected source 1.09 0.77-1.54 0.62    
Open defecation 1.09 0.83-1.45 0.53    
Deforestation 1.97 0.97-3.99 0.06 1.84 0.87-3.89 0.11
Method of drinking water treatment used Boiling 0.96 0.50-1.86 0.91    
Filtration with cloth 0.77 0.33-1.85 0.57    
Use of filter ("yes" vs. "no") 1.55 1.00-2.41 0.05 1.27 0.78-2.09 0.34
Clean drinking water storage container "no" vs. "yes" 1.88 1.04-3.41 0.04 1.65 0.87-3.17 0.13
Handwashing with soap <5 times 1.00      
5-10 times 1.08 0.79-1.47 0.32    
>10 times 0.25 0.03-2.23     
Times of handwashing When they look dirty 0.10 0.76-1.31 0.99    
After going to toilet 0.58 0.23-1.49 0.26    
After cleaning baby’s bottom 1.00 0.77-1.31 0.98    
Before eating 1.07 0.79-1.46 0.65    
Before cooking 1.14 0.87-1.48 0.35    
Animals inside home overnight "yes" vs. "no" 1.13 0.84-1.51 0.41    
Information received on WASHc "no" vs. "yes" 1.90 1.21-3.00 0.01 1.10 0.44-2.72 0.84
Handwashing station installed "no" vs. "yes" 2.66 1.05-6.73 0.04 1.66 0.54-5.17 0.38
Use soap always to wash hands "yes" vs. "no" 1.69 0.96-2.99 0.07 1.22 0.48-3.10 0.67
Wash hands during critical times "yes" vs. "no" 1.98 0.97-3.67 0.06 0.73 0.27-1.95 0.53
Sometimes treating water "no" vs. "yes" 3.68 1.39-9.71 0.01 2.29 0.72-7.23 0.16
Attended hygiene literacy class "no" vs. "yes" 1.47 1.08-1.99 0.01 1.36 0.96-1.92 0.08
Caregivers heard about intestinal parasites "no" vs. "yes" 1.36 0.98-1.88 0.06 0.98 0.67-1.43 0.92
Type of toilet in the household Water pit latrine 1.00    1.00   
Pit latrine 2.25 1.12-4.49 0.07 7.47 1.91-29.3 0.006
No latrine 1.67 0.96-2.91   4.79 1.32-17.4  
Cleanliness of the toilet "yes" vs. "no" 0.89 0.69-1.16 0.40    
Materials available in toilet Sandals/slippers 0.86 0.45-1.65 0.66    
Drum with water 1.36 0.96-1.91 0.08 0.37 0.12-1.21 0.10
Brush 1.14 0.84-1.54 0.41    
None of these 0.72 0.47-1.09 0.12 0.25 0.07-0.86 0.03
Soap available at handwashing facility "yes" vs. "no" 0.87 0.55-1.37 0.55    
Trash outside the house "yes" vs. "no" 0.72 0.54-0.97 0.03 0.80 0.55-1.16 0.24
Trash spread inside the house "yes" vs. "no" 1.09 0.82-1.45 0.57    
Entirety of food covered "yes" vs. "no" 1.06 0.78-1.43 0.72    
Flies in the kitchen "yes" vs. "no" 1.05 0.76-1.44 0.78    
Caregiver's hands clean "yes" vs. "no" 0.75 0.54-1.04 0.09 0.61 0.42-0.89 0.01
Caregiver is wearing shoes "yes" vs. "no" 1.21 0.90-1.62 0.21    
Child's hand clean "yes" vs. "no" 0.88 0.67-1.15 0.33    
Piles of dirty clothes in the house "yes" vs. "no" 0.71 0.53-0.95 0.02 0.78 0.54-1.13 0.19
E. coli at point of use drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 1.34 0.71-2.47 0.37    
E. coli at point of collection drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 1.05 0.55-2.00 0.88    
Total coliforms at POCd drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 1.33 0.22-8.24 0.76    
Total coliforms at POUe drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 1.63 0.53-4.99 0.39    
Presence of undernutrition "yes" vs. "no" 1.02 0.77-1.34 0.92    
Presence of nutritional deficiencies "yes" vs. "no" 1.14 0.85-1.51 0.38    
Presence of diarrhoea "yes" vs. "no" 1.16 0.81-1.65 0.41    
  1. aOdds ratios were obtained from univariate mixed logistic regression models with random area intercepts, and P-values were obtained from Wald- and likelihood ratio tests. P-values <0.2 in the univariate analyses are marked in bold
  2. bAdjusted odds ratios were obtained from a multivariable mixed logistic regression model with random area intercepts including all variables with P-values <0.2 in the univariate models along with gender and age group of the child and socio-economic category of the household. P-values were obtained from Wald- and likelihood ratio tests and values <0.05 are marked in bold
  3. cWater, sanitation and hygiene
  4. dPoint of collection
  5. ePoint of use