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Table 2 Association between nutritional deficienciesa and various factors in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses

From: Association of nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene practices with children’s nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and diarrhoea in rural Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Nutritional deficiencies [N(cases)=912] Univariate logistic regressionb Multivariate logistic regressionc
OR 95% CI P-value aOR 95% CI P-value
Age of the participating child < 5 years 1.00    1.00   
> 5 years 1.59 1.25-2.02 0.01 1.84 1.30-2.62 0.01
Sex of the participating child Male 1.00    1.00   
Female 0.98 0.78-1.23 0.84 1.04 0.76-1.42 0.80
Number of children in the household < 5 1.00    1.00   
> 5 2.81 0.60-13.27   3.05 0.32-29.12 0.33
Socioeconomic statusd Poor 1.00    1.00   
Intermediate 1.14 0.83-1.58 0.08 1.10 0.71-1.72 0.43
High 1.20 0.85-1.71   1.38 0.82-2.33  
Occupation of the household head Agriculture 0.96 0.76-1.21 0.73    
Business 0.75 0.52-1.09 0.13 0.84 0.49-1.45 0.54
Daily labourer 0.65 0.51-0.83 0.01 0.75 0.52-1.06 0.10
Government service 1.04 0.59-1.83 0.88    
Other independent work 0.25 0.04-1.36 0.11 0.51 0.07-3.67 0.50
None 4.93 0.62-39.22 0.13 2.70 0.22-32.85 0.44
Handwashing with soap <5 times 1.00    1.00   
5-10 times 0.66 0.51-0.85 0.007 1.08 0.65-1.80 0.53
>10 times 0.65 0.12-3.44   3.39 0.36-31.77  
Times of handwashing When they look dirty 0.56 0.44-0.71 0.01 0.74 0.50-1.08 0.12
After going to toilet 0.39 0.14-1.09 0.07 0.13 0.01-1.10 0.06
After cleaning baby’s bottom 0.40 0.32-0.52 0.01 0.60 0.40-0.92 0.02
Before eating 1.02 0.78-1.33 0.15 0.75 0.49-1.15 0.19
Before cooking 1.44 1.14-1.82 0.01 1.07 0.67-1.68 0.78
Animals inside home overnight "yes" vs. "no" 1.67 1.32-2.13 0.01 1.71 1.17-2.51 0.01
Information received on WASHe "yes" vs. "no" 0.65 0.45-0.95 0.02 1.03 0.56-1.89 0.93
Child suffered from any illnesses:
 Fever "yes" vs. "no" 0.98 0.78-1.24 0.89    
 Cough "yes" vs. "no" 1.09 0.86-1.37 0.47    
 Respiratory difficulties "yes" vs. "no" 1.97 1.40-2.78 0.01 1.32 0.79-2.18 0.29
 Diarrheaf "yes" vs. "no" 1.05 0.77-1.44 0.75    
 Blood in stool "yes" vs. "no" 2.87 1.25-6.60 0.01 1.72 0.50-5.90 0.39
 Mucus in stool "yes" vs. "no" 3.10 1.42-6.75 0.01 2.07 0.67-6.38 0.20
 Blood in urine "yes" vs. "no" 1.99 0.39-9.98 0.40    
Heard about intestinal parasitesg "yes" vs. "no" 0.53 0.40-0.70 0.01 1.12 0.46-2.69 0.80
Awareness on measures against intestinal parasites Washing hands with soap 0.39 0.27-0.57 0.01 0.56 0.26-1.24 0.15
Cutting finger nails 0.22 0.13-0.37 0.01 0.83 0.32-2.15 0.71
Wash fruits/vegetables before consumption 0.13 0.05-0.33 0.01 0.64 0.17-2.45 0.52
Wear shoe 0.13 0.07-0.23 0.01 0.24 0.09-0.62 0.01
Drink clean water 0.61 0.45-0.82 0.01 1.63 0.67-3.95 0.28
Deworming regularly 0.85 0.60-1.21 0.38    
Child ever breastfed “yes” vs. “no” 0.80 0.12-5.17 0.82    
Total months child breastfed <6 months 2.82 1.07-7.42   3.99 0.86-18.50  
6-12 months 1.64 0.62-4.33 <0.001 1.90 0.41-8.84 <0.001
>12 months 1.00    1.00   
Complementary feeding of the participating child started <6months "yes" vs. "no" 0.57 0.30-1.09 0.09 0.52 0.17-1.62 0.26
Material of the home’s floor "earth" vs. "cement" 1.01 0.74-1.37 0.95    
Dietary diversity scores 1 1.00    1.00   
2 1.07 0.66-1.74   0.75 0.36-1.54  
3 1.15 0.72-1.85   0.70 0.34-1.46  
4 2.06 1.23-3.44   1.12 0.52-2.44  
5 1.86 1.09-3.12 <0.001 1.67 0.77-3.61 0.08
6 1.28 0.78-2.10   0.89 0.43-1.84  
7 1.30 0.79-2.16   0.93 0.44-1.96  
8 0.83 0.51-1.37   0.84 0.41-1.74  
9 0.27 0.17-0.45   0.51 0.25-1.05  
Production of own food "yes" vs. "no" 0.52 0.41-0.67 0.01 0.51 0.35-0.76 0.01
Latrine hygiene Lower category 1.00    1.00   
Intermediate category 1.38 1.02-1.86 <0.001 1.43 0.93-2.20 <0.001
High category 0.68 0.52-0.90   0.61 0.41-0.91  
Kitchen hygiene Lower category 1.00    1.00   
Intermediate category 1.33 1.01-1.74 <0.001 0.89 0.58-1.34 0.008
High category 0.47 0.34-0.65   0.40 0.22-0.75  
Personal hygiene of participating child and their caregivers Lower category 2.24 1.68-3.00   1.90 1.17-3.10  
Intermediate category 1.93 1.46-2.55 <0.001 1.84 1.22-2.76 0.005
High category 1.00    1.00   
Hygiene status of water transport container Lower category 1.00    1.00   
Intermediate category 0.97 0.68-1.38 <0.001 0.60 0.23-1.58 0.58
High category 0.55 0.42-0.72   0.91 0.31-2.66  
Hygiene status of water storage container Lower category 1.00    1.00   
Intermediate category 1.10 0.77-1.59 <0.001 1.84 0.69-4.87 0.33
High category 0.54 0.42-0.72   0.77 0.26-2.25  
Presence of intestinal parasites "yes" vs. "no" 0.88 0.66-1.17 0.37    
Presence of undernutrition "yes" vs. "no" 1.07 0.84-1.35 0.59    
E. coli in POCh drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 0.93 0.55-1.57 0.79    
Coliforms in POC drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 6.53 1.24-34.29 0.03 10.44 1.61-67.4 0.01
E. coli in POUi drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 1.08 0.63-1.85 0.78    
Coliforms in POU drinking water "yes" vs. "no" 2.33 0.79-6.88 0.13 1.78 0.33-9.46 0.50
  1. aNutritional deficiency: presence of wasted appearance, bitot’s spot, loss of hair pigment, dry and infected cornea, oedema, pale conjunctiva, bowed legs, spongy bleeding gums, dermatitis, red inflamed tongue, sub-dermal haemorrhage and goitre
  2. bOdds ratios were obtained from univariate mixed logistic regression models with random area intercepts, and P-values were obtained from Wald- and likelihood ratio tests. P-values <0.2 in the univariate analyses are marked in bold
  3. cAdjusted odds ratios were obtained from a multivariable mixed logistic regression model with random area intercepts including all variables with P-values < 0.2 in the univariate models along with gender and age group of the child and socio-economic category of the household. P-values were obtained from Wald- and likelihood ratio tests and values < 0.05 are marked in bold
  4. dSocio-economic status was derived from a factor analysis using principal component analysis of variables indicating the wealth index
  5. eWater, sanitation and hygiene
  6. fPassage of loose stool three or more than three times per day
  7. gOverall soil transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa
  8. hPoint of collection
  9. IPoint of use