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Table 1 Prevalence of children’s undernutrition and signs of nutritional deficiencies in four study sites

From: Association of nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene practices with children’s nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and diarrhoea in rural Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Malnutrition indicators, clinical outcomes and nutritional deficiency [N (%)] Sex P-value Age group P-value Area P-value*
Male Female < 5 years >  5 years Surkhet A [n (%)] Surkhet B [n (%)] Dailekh [n (%)] Accham [n (%)]
Malnutrition indicators
Stunting (n = 1389)
 Severea 248 (17.9) 146 (18.8) 102 (16.7) 0.51 158 (17.8) 90 (17.9) 0.81 29 (8.5) 49 (13.8) 87 (25.1) 83 (23.9) 0.01
 Moderateb 370 (26.6) 209 (26.9) 161 (26.3)   241 (27.2) 129 (25.6)   73 (21.5) 83 (23.3) 104 (30.1) 110 (31.7)  
 Normalc 771 (55.5) 422 (54.3) 349 (57.0)   487 (55.0) 284 (56.5)   238 (70.0) 224 (62.9) 155 (44.8) 154 (44.4)  
Thinness (n = 1344)
 Severea 55 (4.1) 25 (3.4) 30 (5.0) 0.31 36 (4.2) 19 (3.9) 0.83 12 (3.7) 14 (3.9) 16 (4.8) 13 (4.0) 0.31
 Moderateb 96 (7.1) 54 (7.2) 42 (7.0)   63 (7.4) 33 (6.7)   19 (5.9) 22 (6.2) 34 (10.2) 21 (6.4)  
 Normalc 1193 (88.8) 667 (89.4) 526 (88.0)   752 (88.4) 441 (89.4)   293 (90.4) 322 (89.9) 284 (85.0) 294 (89.6)  
Underweight (n = 1360)
 Severea 142 (10.4) 83 (11.0) 59 (9.8) 0.63 88 (10.2) 54 (10.9) 0.88 16 (4.9) 33 (9.2) 49 (14.4) 44 (13.3) 0.01
 Moderateb 265 (19.5) 151 (20.0) 114 (18.9)   171 (19.8) 94 (19.0)   40 (21.1) 57 (15.8) 85 (25.1) 83 (25.1)  
 Normalc 953 (70.1) 522 (69.0) 431 (71.3)   606 (70.1) 347 (70.1)   274 (83.0) 270 (75.0) 205 (60.5) 204 (61.6)  
Clinical outcomes and signs/symptoms of nutritional deficiency (n = 1427)
 Wasted appearance 197 (13.8) 95 (12.0) 102 (16.0) 0.03 145 (16.0) 52 (10.0) 0.01 29 (8.3) 33 (9.0) 66 (18.5) 69 (19.3) 0.01
 Bitot’s spot 283 (19.8) 168 (21.3) 115 (18.1) 0.13 147 (16.2) 136 (26.2) 0.01 27 (7.8) 65 (17.8) 89 (25.0) 102 (28.5) 0.01
 Loss of hair pigment 153 (10.7) 80 (10.1) 73 (11.5) 0.42 114 (12.6) 39 (7.5) 0.01 12 (3.5) 46 (12.6) 56 (15.7) 39 (10.9) 0.01
 Dry and infected cornea 189 (13.2) 108 (13.7) 81 (12.7) 0.60 114 (12.6) 75 (14.5) 0.31 25 (7.2) 26 (7.1) 49 (13.8) 89 (24.9) 0.01
 Oedema 38 (2.7) 18 (2.3) 20 (3.14) 0.32 28 (3.1) 10 (1.9) 0.91 4 (1.2) 5 (1.4) 9 (2.5) 20 (5.6) 0.01
 Pale conjunctiva 513 (35.9) 279 (35.3) 234 (36.7) 0.01 309 (34.0) 204 (39.3) 0.05 83 (23.9) 95 (26.0) 154 (43.3) 181 (50.6) 0.01
 Bowed legs 37 (2.6) 25 (3.2) 12 (1.9) 0.13 23 (2.5) 14 (2.7) 0.85 7 (2.0) 3 (0.8) 9 (2.5) 18 (5.0) 0.01
 Spongy bleeding gums 232 (16.3) 131 (16.6) 101 (15.9) 0.71 104 (11.5) 128 (24.7) 0.01 37 (10.6) 68 (18.6) 70 (19.7) 57 (15.9) 0.01
 Dermatitis 818 (57.3) 464 (58.7) 354 (55.8) 0.23 511 (56.3) 307 (59.2) 0.29 155 (44.5) 200 (54.8) 235 (66.0) 228 (63.7) 0.01
 Red inflamed tongue 261 (18.3) 138 (17.5) 123 (19.3) 0.37 167 (18.4) 94 (18.1) 0.90 24 (6.9) 62 (17.0) 80 (22.5) 95 (26.5) 0.01
 Sub-dermal haemorrhage 66 (4.6) 39 (4.9) 27 (4.2) 0.53 36 (4.0) 30 (5.8) 0.12 8 (2.3) 16 (4.4) 19 (5.3) 23 (6.4) 0.06
 Goitre 9 (0.63) 7 (0.9) 2 (0.3) 0.18 7 (0.8) 2 (0.4) 0.38 1 (0.3) 3 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 4 (1.1) 0.41
Overall nutritional deficiency (N = 1427) 1113 (78.0) 58 (72.5) 1055 (78.3) 0.22 697 (76.8) 416 (80.2) 0.14 216 (62.1) 269 (73.7) 306 (86.0) 322 (89.9) 0.01
  1. a z score of < −3
  2. b z score of < −2 and ≥ −3
  3. c z score ≥ −2
  4. *P-values are calculated by χ2 test