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Table 1 Summary characteristic of included studies in systematic review

From: The role of telehealth during COVID-19 outbreak: a systematic review based on current evidence

Author/
Date
Country Design of study Type of telehealth Key outputs Effects
Davarpanah et al./
17/02/2020 [33]
Iran Case study Social media platform including messaging software, WhatsApp, and email • Faster rate in teleradiology services delivery
• Assembled an opinion teleradiology group
• Create volunteer network coordinator (humanitarian)
• Triage of COVID-19 infection using radiology experts from centers from around the world
• Eliminated the need to send patients to overpopulated hospitals
• Provided near real-time consultation from experts located around the country and the world
• Addressed the local need
• Could solve the shortage of on-site thoracic radiologists
• Provided consultation in regions with limited access to thoracic radiology expertise
• Established consensus among radiologists through discussions in the online group
Zhai et al./
23/02/2020 [34]
China, UK Case study Live video conferencing and mobile • Providing clinicians and patients with immediate diagnosis and consultations regarding COVID-19
• Wireless remote monitoring of patients
• Remote multiple disciplinary care
• Education and training of patients
• Performing the collects, transforms, and evaluation of patients health data
• Led to capture, store and process patient medical records
• Achieved real-time data exchange
• Accessed prevention and treatment guidelines, and guidance on drug use and management of coronavirus patients
• Prevented direct physical contact
• Reduced the risk of exposure to respiratory secretions
• Prevented the potential transmission of infection to physicians and nurses
• Helped the specialist treatment team to provide primary care guidance on coronavirus for all physicians and nurses
Reeves et al./
24/03/2020 [35]
USA Cross-sectional Phone calls and electronic health record (EHR) • Triage of patient with phone calls
• Screening or treating a patient in an ambulatory care setting
• Screening or treating a patient in an urgent care setting
• Offering decision support for those in need of testing
• Repurposing and utilizing EHR optimization team to train end users’ video visit workflow
• Telemedicine–video visits for outpatient clinic encounters
• Managing patients’ concerns
• Tracking of COVID-related infection in EHR embedded database
• Tracking of persons under investigation (PUI) in EHR embedded database
• Reports regarding prior PUI, existing and pending tests, training completion and screening/documentation compliance
• Updated travel and symptom screening, testing criteria, and clear guidance on best setting and location of patient care
• Clinical decision support on testing criteria, recommended additional work-up, admission criteria/protocol, and discharge information
• Standard documentation of any screening of patient visitors for symptoms of infection
• Template excuse letter for providers to recommend working from home
Nicol et al./
24/03/2020 [36]
USA, Canada Cross-sectional Social media or other digital platforms including telephone, email and videoconferencing • Facilitating electronic informed consent, digital assessment tools and virtual study visits
• E-consent, remote assessment, and telephone or videoconference visits
• Provide e-consultation or advice to health providers
• Helped in implementing social distancing
• Could be implemented far from high-risk areas such as hospital grounds
• Reduced the use of public transportation
• Provided all of the components of human research protection
• Reduced viral transmission risk from in-person contacts
• Prevented morbidity in these at-risk individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic
• Communicated accurate and clear information, at a time when older adults and their family are bombarded with contradictory and confusing messages
Simcock et al./
24/03/2020 [37]
UK, USA, Italy Cross-sectional Telephone, video, and laptops • Telephone follow up in multiple cancer settings (endometrial, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer)
• Use in remote monitoring
• Provide video consultations
• Minimized the risk of COVID-19 transmission during radiotherapy treatment
• Reduced infection risk and the risks of workforce depletion
• Facilitated access to hospital data or to treatment planning systems
Greenhawt/
26/03/2020 [38]
USA, Canada Cross-sectional Telephone, electronic medical record, patient portal messaging, digital photography, video using a HIPAA-compliant platform, website • Delivering allergy services
• Phone triage as available options in allergic rhinitis
• Provide telehealth visits
• Follow-up visits, via phone triage or telehealth in patients with urticaria, angioedema, and atopic dermatitis
• Service adjustment for food allergy, Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), drug allergy, and anaphylaxis
• Service adjustment for allergic skin disorders and
• Service adjustment for immunodeficiency
• Immunotherapy appointments or schedules
• Served as a portal for sharing timely information to large numbers of patients
• Limited the exposure of providers to potentially infected patients
• Provided access to rapid evaluation for potential COVID-19 infection
• Reduced exposure of patients
• Preserved social distancing
• Could meet healthcare needs
• Helped visualize any rash
• Reduced the need for face-to-face visits
• Virtual care options to ensure continuity of care
• Was Effective for managing patients with chronic conditions
• Provided an opportunity to introduce telehealth in to an allergy practice
• Reduced burden on practice resources
Cohen et al./ 07/04/2020 [39] USA Cross-sectional Applications including Apple FaceTime, Facebook Messenger video chat, Skype, and Mobile health technology • To develop staffing plans
• Using to conducted billing of patients
• To appropriately-performed telehealth visits
• Use in psychological treatments
• contact with family, friends and colleagues
• In-person evaluation, telemedicine evaluation if high-risk for infection (patient or location-specific)
• Minimized “unnecessary” exposure of hospital staff to patients, and to themselves
• Led to early treatment associated with better outcomes
Zhou et al./ 09/04/2020 [40] China Case-control combined mode of MOOC micro-video • The live broadcast of the training video
• Can be watched repeatedly videos
• Was applied to the communication ability training of new nurses
• Satisfaction was higher
• Understanding was easy
• The teachers’ evaluation and harvest were higher
• Obtained the real clinical experience
• Helped to alleviate the lack of clinical nursing teaching resources