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Table 4 Cox proportional hazards models examining the associations with mental health, alcohol misuse, smoking for the top 5 NCDs

From: Hospital admissions for non-communicable disease in the UK military and associations with alcohol use and mental health: a data linkage study

  n with disorder (row %) Unadjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Adjusted HR (95% CI)c
Gastrointestinal disorders (n = 8359, failures = 303)
PTSD
  Non-case 279 (3.46%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 21 (7.58%) 2.29 (1.38–3.81) 2.15 (1.27–3.63) 2.11 (1.24–3.61) 2.28 (1.34–3.89)
CMD
  Non-case 230 (3.35%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 72 (4.85%) 1.47 (1.07–2.02) 1.48 (1.08–2.2) 1.49 (1.08–2.03) 1.55 (1.12–2.15)
Alcohol misuse
  Low risk drinking (0–7)d 138 (3.92%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Hazardous drinking (8–15) 130 (3.51%) 0.92 (0.69–1.22) 1.04 (0.76–1.41) 1.03 (0.76–1.41)  
  Harmful drinking/possible dependence (16+) 30 (3.27%) 0.89 (0.56–1.41) 1.10 (0.68–1.77) 1.07 (0.65–1.77)  
Binge drinking at phase 2
  Monthly or less 201 (4.17%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Weekly or more 97 (2.85%) 0.70 (0.52–0.93) 0.76 (0.56–1.03) 0.76 (0.56–1.03)  
Smoking status at phase 2
  Non-smoker 134 (2.96%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Ex-smoker 85 (3.97%) 1.32 (0.96–1.82) 1.18 (0.85–1.64) 1.17 (0.84–1.63)  
  Smoker 77 (4.45%) 1.56 (1.12–2.16) 1.65 (1.19–2.28) 1.64 (1.18–2.28)  
Joint disorders (n = 8361, failures = 291)
PTSD
  Non-case 272 (3.34%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 15 (4.04%) 1.23 (0.67–2.26) 1.23 (0.66–2.27) 1.18 (0.64–2.17) 1.07 (0.57–1.99)
CMD
  Non-case 224 (3.31%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 62 (3.59%) 1.08 (0.77–1.52) 1.06 (0.76–1.49) 1.05 (0.74–1.47) 1.00 (0.70–1.43)
Alcohol misuse
  Low risk drinking (0–7) d 117 (3.18%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Hazardous drinking (8–15) 129 (3.26%) 1.04 (0.77–1.39) 0.98 (0.72–1.33) 0.97 (0.71–1.32)  
  Harmful drinking/possible dependence (16+) 42 (4.55%) 1.47 (0.98–2.22) 1.33 (0.86–2.05) 1.32 (0.85–2.06)  
Binge drinking at phase 2
  Monthly or less 169 (3.09%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Weekly or more 118 (3.86%) 1.27 (0.96–1.67) 1.21 (0.91–1.61) 1.21 (0.91–1.61)  
Smoking status at phase 2
  Non-smoker 124 (2.80%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Ex-smoker 78 (3.52%) 1.25 (0.89–1.74) 1.25 (0.89–1.75) 1.24 (0.88–1.74)  
  Smoker 85 (4.43%) 1.63 (1.17–2.25) 1.54 (1.10–2.16) 1.53 (1.09–2.15)  
Arthritis/osteoarthritis (n = 8484, failures = 131)
PTSD
  Non-case 120 (1.49%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 8 (2.22%) 1.55 (0.68–3.52) 1.76 (0.77–4.02) 1.78 (0.79–4.01) 1.73 (0.71–4.20)
CMD
  Non-case 98 (1.52%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 31 (1.65%) 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 1.19 (0.74–1.91) 1.20 (0.75–1.94) 1.10 (0.66–1.85)
Alcohol misuse
  Low risk drinking (0–7) d 62 (1.80%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Hazardous drinking (8–15) 55 (1.34%) 0.78 (0.51–1.19) 0.91 (0.58–1.42) 0.92 (0.59–1.44)  
  Harmful drinking/possible dependence (16+) 10 (1.16%) 0.70 (0.33–1.49) 0.95 (0.44–2.09) 0.99 (0.44–2.20)  
Binge drinking at phase 2
  Monthly or less 83 (1.62%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Weekly or more 44 (1.35%) 0.86 (0.56–1.33) 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 0.99 (0.64–1.55)  
Smoking status at phase 2
  Non-smoker 57 (1.36%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Ex-smoker 42 (1.78%) 1.27 (0.80–2.03) 1.09 (0.67–1.77) 1.09 (0.67–1.76)  
  Smoker 29 (1.64%) 1.26 (0.75–2.11) 1.33 (0.78–2.27) 1.34 (0.78–2.29)  
Hypertension (n = 8490, failures = 105)
PTSD
  Non-case 92 (1.29%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 11 (2.82%) 2.22 (1.06–4.68) 2.56 (1.24–5.30) 2.23 (1.07–4.67) 2.08 (0.94–4.62)
CMD
  Non-case 77 (1.29%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 27 (1.75%) 1.37 (0.82–2.28) 1.50 (0.90–2.49) 1.39 (0.83–2.33) 1.35 (0.81–2.24)
Alcohol misuse
  Low risk drinking (0–7) d 52 (1.60%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Hazardous drinking (8–15) 41 (1.22%) 0.78 (0.49–1.24) 1.04 (0.64–1.69) 1.00 (0.61–1.62)  
  Harmful drinking/possible dependence (16+) 11 (1.31%) 0.86 (0.42–1.77) 1.54 (0.74–3.18) 1.39 (0.67–2.91)  
Binge drinking at phase 2 68 (1.50%)     
  Monthly or less 36 (1.23%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Weekly or more   0.84 (0.53–1.33) 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 0.99 (0.62–1.58)  
Smoking status at phase 2
  Non-smoker 54 (1.42%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Ex-smoker 28 (1.50%) 1.04 (0.62–1.72) 0.81 (0.49–1.33) 0.77 (0.46–1.29)  
  Smoker 22 (1.23%) 0.88 (0.50–1.55) 0.99 (0.56–1.75) 0.94 (0.53–1.67)  
Prostate and GU disorders (n = 8469, failures = 90)
PTSD
  Non-case 80 (1.08%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 9 (2.53%) 2.42 (1.08–5.41) 2.50 (1.14–5.46) 2.17 (0.97–4.85) 2.47 (1.17–5.20)
CMD
  Non-case 64 (1.00%) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Case 26 (1.75%) 1.77 (1.04–3.00) 1.82 (1.09–3.05) 1.74 (1.05–2.89) 1.80 (1.08–3.01)
Alcohol misuse
  Low risk drinking (0–7) d (*) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Hazardous drinking (8–15) (*) 1.14 (0.69–1.88) 1.22 (0.67–1.87) 1.11 (0.67–1.86)  
  Harmful drinking/possible dependence (16+) (*) 0.61 (0.25–1.49) 0.64 (0.25—1.66) 0.61 (0.24–1.59)  
Binge drinking at phase 2
  Monthly or less 62 (1.35%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Weekly or more 28 (0.84%) 0.63 (0.38–1.06) 0.63 (0.37–1.08) 0.63 (0.37–1.07)  
Smoking status at phase 2
  Non-smoker 39 (1.01%) 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  Ex-smoker 25 (1.14%) 1.12 (0.61–2.02) 1.00 (0.54–1.83) 0.98 (0.54–1.80)  
  Smoker 26 (1.47%) 1.51 (0.86–2.66) 1.35 (0.74–2.46) 1.37 (0.78–2.42)  
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, marital status, rank, serving status, engagement type, service branch, deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and primary role in parent unit
  2. bAdditionally adjusted for family relationship adversity in childhood
  3. cAdditionally adjusted for alcohol misuse and smoking status at phase 2
  4. dCategory includes the never drinkers due to low cell sizes
  5. (*) – Numbers and percentages are not reported when n is smaller than 8 due to Hospital Episode Statistics reporting guidelines
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