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Table 3 Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors stratified by place of residence in the PURE-Saudi study

From: Demographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Saudi population: results from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study (PURE-Saudi)

Characteristics Urban Rural P1
N (%) 1545 (75.5) 502 (24.5)  
Demographics
 Age (y), mean ± SD 46.3 ± 8.9 47.1 ± 9.8 0.124
 Low education level, n (%) 413 (26.7) 233 (46.4) < 0.001
Behavioral risk factors
 Smoking status, n (%)
  Current smoker 198 (12.8) 51 (10.2) 0.114
  Former smoker 175 (11.3) 42 (8.4) 0.061
  Unhealthful diet, n (%) 556 (36) 146 (29.4) 0.007
  Low physical activity, n (%) 1061 (68.7) 354 (71.5) 0.240
  Current alcohol use, n (%) 18 (1.2) 6 (1.2) 0.956
Hypertension
 Hypertension, n (%) 442 (28.6) 178 (35.5) 0.004
 Awareness among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 275 (62.2) 104 (58.4) 0.381
 Treated hypertension among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 266 (60.2) 99 (55.6) 0.296
 Controlled hypertension among those with known hypertension, n (%) 144 (32.6) 46 (25.8) 0.100
 Treated hypertension and SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg, n (%) 122 (45.9) 53 (53.5) 0.192
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 120 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 227 (85.3) 91 (91.9) 0.095
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 130 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 191 (73.5) 81 (83.5) 0.047
Diabetes
 Diabetes, n (%) 360 (23.3) 156 (31.1) < 0.001
 Among patients with diabetes    < 0.001
  On insulin alone 11 (3.1) 3 (1.9)  
  On OHA alone 249 (69.2) 64 (41.0)  
  On both 31 (8.6) 3 (1.9)  
  Not on prescription drug 69 (19.2) 86 (55.1)  
Dyslipidemia
 Total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 3.5 mmol/l, n (%) 439 (31.5) 130 (34.1) 0.330
Obesity
 BMI, mean 30.4 ± 5.8 31.4 ± 6.2 0.037
 BMI, n (%)    < 0.001
  < 25.0 245 (15.9) 65 (12.9)  
  25.0–30.0 569 (36.8) 153 (30.5)  
  30.1–35.0 454 (29.4) 159 (31.7)  
  > 35.0 275 (17.8) 124 (24.7)  
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)
  Waist circumference > 102 cm (men) or > 88 cm (women) 754 (48.8) 251 (50) 0.641
  Waist circumference > 90 cm (men) or > 85 cm (women) 1156 (74.8) 365 (72.7) 0.347
Psychosocial
 Self-report of being sad or “blue,” n (%) 272 (17.6) 43 (8.6) < 0.001
 General feeling of stress, n (%)
  Several periods of stress 296 (19.6) 43 (8.7) < 0.001
  Permanent stress 121 (8) 15 (3) < 0.001
Medical history
 History of ischemic heart disease (angina or myocardial infarction), n (%) 36 (2.3) 15 (3) 0.411
 History of stroke, n (%) 12 (0.8) 8 (1.6) 0.118
 History of heart failure, n (%) 8 (0.5) 5 (1) 0.327
 INTERHEART Risk Score, median (25th–75th, IQR) 11 (8,16) 12 (7,17) 0.833
  1. BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, IQR interquartile range, OHA oral hypoglycemic agent, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. 1P values refer to the results of either Chi-square tests (for categorical variables) or t-tests (for continuous variables comparing the mean between categories