Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors stratified by age groups in the PURE-Saudi study

From: Demographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Saudi population: results from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study (PURE-Saudi)

Characteristics 35–49 y 50–59 y 60–70 y P1
N (%) 1352 (66) 469 (22.9) 226 (11)  
Demographics
 Low education level, n (%) 293 (21.7) 211 (45) 142 (62.8) < 0.001
Behavioral risk factors
 Smoking status, n (%)
  Current smoker 181 (13.4) 48 (10.2) 20 (8.8) 0.054
  Former smoker 124 (9.2) 60 (12.8) 33 (14.6) 0.011
  Unhealthful diet, n (%) 524 (38.9) 118 (25.2) 60 (26.5) < 0.001
  Low physical activity, n (%) 899 (66.8) 346 (73.9) 170 (75.2) 0.002
  Current alcohol use, n (%) 14 (1) 7 (1.5) 3 (1.3) 0.632
Hypertension
 Hypertension, n (%) 246 (18.2) 227 (48.4) 147 (65) < 0.001
 Awareness among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 112 (45.5) 159 (70) 108 (73.5) < 0.001
 Treated hypertension among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 100 (40.6) 157 (69.2) 108 (73.5) < 0.001
 Controlled hypertension among those with known hypertension, n (%) 49 (19.9) 89 (39.2) 52 (35.4) < 0.001
 Treated hypertension and SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg, n (%) 51 (51) 68 (43.3) 56 (51.8) 0.304
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 120 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 86 (86) 135 (86) 97 (89.8) 0.609
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 130 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 80 (80.8) 115 (73.7) 77 (75.5) 0.423
Diabetes
 Diabetes, n (%) 175 (12.9) 211 (45) 130 (57.5) < 0.001
 Among patients with diabetes     0.831
  On insulin alone 5 (2.9) 6 (2.8) 3 (2.3)  
  On OHA alone 105 (60) 130 (61.6) 78 (60)  
  On both 12 (6.9) 10 (4.7) 12 (9.2)  
  Not on prescription drug 53 (30.3) 65 (30.8) 37 (28.5)  
Dyslipidemia
 Total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 3.5 mmol/l, n (%) 380 (32.4) 124 (29.9) 65 (34.2) 0.514
Obesity
 BMI, mean 30.6 ± 6 31.4 ± 5.5 29.5 ± 5.7 0.003
 BMI, n (%)     < 0.001
  < 25.0 211 (15.6) 46 (9.8) 53 (23.4)  
  25.0–30.0 488 (36.1) 161 (34.3) 73 (32.3)  
  30.1–35.0 388 (28.7) 160 (34.1) 65 (28.8)  
  > 35.0 262 (19.4) 102 (21.7) 35 (15.5)  
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)
  Waist circumference > 102 cm (men) or > 88 cm (women) 628 (46.4) 262 (55.9) 115 (50.9) 0.002
  Waist circumference > 90 cm (men) or > 85 cm (women) 960 (71) 389 (82.9) 172 (76.1) < 0.001
Psychosocial
 Self-report of being sad or “blue,” n (%) 252 (18.6) 47 (10) 16 (7.1) < 0.001
 General feeling of stress, n (%)
  Several periods of stress 249 (18.6) 74 (16.3) 16 (7.5) < 0.001
  Permanent stress 121 (9.1) 11 (2.4) 4 (1.9) < 0.001
Medical history
 History of ischemic heart disease (angina or myocardial infarction), n (%) 15 (1.1) 19 (4.0) 17 (7.5) < 0.001
 History of stroke, n (%) 6 (0.4) 5 (1.1) 9 (4) < 0.001
 History of heart failure, n (%) 2 (0.1) 7 (1.5) 4 (1.8) < 0.001
 INTERHEART Risk Score, median (25th–75th, IQR) 10 (7,14) 14 (10,19) 16 (12,21) < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, IQR interquartile range, OHA oral hypoglycemic agent, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. 1P values refer to the results of either chi-square tests (for categorical variables) or analysis of variance (for continuous variables comparing the mean across categories)