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Table 1 Characteristics and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the PURE-Saudi study

From: Demographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Saudi population: results from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study (PURE-Saudi)

Characteristics Overall Men Women P1
N (%) 2047 1165 (56.9) 882 (43.1)  
Demographics
 Age (y), mean ± SD 46.5 ± 9.1 47.5 ± 9.4 45.1 ± 8.5 < 0.001
 Low educational level, n (%) 646 (31.6) 235 (20.2) 411 (46.6) < 0.001
Behavioral risk factors
 Smoking status, n (%)
  Current smoker 249 (12.2) 245 (21) 4 (0.4) < 0.001
  Former smoker 217 (10.6) 209 (17.9) 8 (0.9) < 0.001
  Unhealthful diet, n (%) 702 (34.4) 397 (56.5) 305 (43.4) 0.827
  Low physical activity, n (%) 1415 (69.4) 805 (69.3) 610 (69.5) 0.946
  Current alcohol use, n (%) 24 (1.2) 24 (2.1) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Hypertension
 Hypertension, n (%) 620 (30.3) 382 (32.8) 238 (27) 0.005
 Awareness among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 379 (61.1) 233 (61) 146 (61.3) 0.931
 Treated hypertension among patients with known hypertension, n (%) 365 (58.9) 220 (57.6) 145 (60.9) 0.412
 Controlled hypertension among those with known hypertension, n (%) 190 (30.6) 108 (28.3) 82 (34.4) 0.104
 Treated hypertension and SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg, n (%) 175 (47.9) 112 (50.9) 63 (43.4) 0.163
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 120 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 318 (87.1) 198 (90) 120 (82.8) 0.043
 Treated hypertension and SBP > 130 mmHg and/or DBP > 80 mmHg, n (%) 272 (76.2) 173 (79.4) 99 (71.2) 0.078
Diabetes
 Diabetes, n (%) 516 (25.2) 328 (28.1) 188 (21.3) < 0.001
 Among patients with diabetes     0.093
  On insulin alone 14 (2.7) 5 (1.5) 9 (4.8)  
  On OHA alone 313 (60.7) 200 (61) 113 (60.1)  
  On both 34 (6.6) 19 (5.8) 15 (8)  
  Not on prescription drug 155 (30) 104 (31.7) 51 (27.1)  
Dyslipidemia
 Total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 3.5 mmol/l, n (%) 569 (32.1) 234 (31.2) 335 (32.7) 0.508
Obesity
 BMI, mean 30.6 ± 5.9 29.7 ± 5.4 31.9 4 ± 6.3 < 0.001
 BMI, n (%)     < 0.001
  < 25 310 (15.1) 205 (17.6) 105 (11.9)  
  25–30 722 (35.3) 462 (39.7) 260 (29.5)  
  31–35 613 (30) 463 (39.8) 286 (32.4)  
  > 35 399 (19.5) 169 (14.5) 230 (26.1)  
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)
  Waist circumference > 102 cm (men) or > 88 cm (women) 1005 (49) 381 (32.7) 624 (70.7) < 0.001
  Waist circumference > 90 cm (men) or > 85 cm (women) 1521 (74.3) 835 (71.7) 686 (77.8) 0.002
Psychosocial
 Self-report of feeling sad or “blue,” n (%) 315 (15.4) 115 (9.9) 200 (22.7) < 0.001
 General feeling of stress, n (%)
  Several periods of stress 339 (16.9) 143 (12.4) 196 (23.1) < 0.001
  Permanent stress 136 (6.8) 52 (4.5) 84 (9.9) < 0.001
Medical history
 History of ischemic heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction, or any coronary revascularization), n (%) 51 (2.5) 37 (3.2) 14 (1.6) 0.022
 History of stroke, n (%) 20 (1) 12 (1) 8 (0.9) 0.779
 History of heart failure, n (%) 13 (0.6) 5 (0.4) 8 (0.9) 0.178
 INTERHEART Risk Score, median (25th–75th, IQR) 11 (8,16) 13 (9,18) 10 (6,14) < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, IQR interquartile range, OHA oral hypoglycemic agent, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. 1P values refer to the results of either Chi-square tests (for categorical variables) or t-tests (for continuous variables comparing the mean between categories