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Table 1 Classification of themes, categories and codes according to the content analysis

From: Factors associated with unsafe work behaviours in an Iranian petrochemical company: perspectives of workers, supervisors, and safety managers

Theme Category Code
Poor direct safety management and supervision Ineffective safety system - Inadequate safety training for workers and safety staff
- Inappropriate quality and design of personal protective equipment
- Managers not carrying their safety management role effectively
- Sub-standard or inappropriate safety equipment promotes accidents
- Supervisors not emphasizing and prioritizing safety
- No separate allocation of funds to improve safety
  Poor safety monitoring - Managers’ lack confidence to deal with safety hazards or issues
- Safety officers not enforcing safety practices and lacking experience and authority
- Inadequate number of safety officers on site
- Irregular safety inspections
- Contractors not prioritizing safety equipment and training
Unsafe workplace conditions Unsafe physical environment - Excessive noise impairing concentration
- Use of worn-out and defective equipment
- Working in high-temperatures
  Unsafe psychological environment - Work-related fatigue
- Excessive workloads
- Delayed salary and wage payments reducing safety incentives
- Poor social working environment
- Inadequate pay and financial detract from focus on safe behaviour
- Low safety motivation
- Little encouragement for workers to contribute to safety
- Work-related stress
- Separation from family
- Low level of organizational commitment
Workers’ perceptions, skills and training Workers not skilled enough to deal with safety issues - Lack of experience and skills in dealing with hazards.
- Taking greater risks when doing common tasks
- Need for more sharing of previous experiences with hazards
- Hazards becoming ‘normalized’ over time
- Inadequate safety orientation for new workers
- Use of untested work practices
  Active errors - Workers distracted by making errors
- Not seeking help when minor incidents occur
- Workers ignoring safety instructions for machinery
- Low level of safety efficacy
- Unrecognised health conditions contributing to errors
Broader organisational factors Unsafe management culture - Prioritizing work outcomes over safety
- Management purchases low-quality safety products and equipment
- Condescending safety supervision and bullying
  Organisational impact on workers’ safety - Lack of attention to workers’ emotional and mental needs
- Lack of organizational safety training at appropriate levels
- Workers underestimating routine hazards
- Poor organisational safety culture influencing workers’ behaviour
- Inadequate staffing
- Incidents may occur even when workers behave safely
  1. NOTE. This table gives an overview of the themes and categories identified in the interview data. Every category is described with extracted codes from the interviews