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Table 3 Hurdle model: all-cause ED contacts by origin area and time-period, 2005–2015

From: Disparities in emergency department use between Italians and migrants residing in Rome, Italy: the Rome Dynamic Longitudinal Study from 2005 to 2015

   Zero-part model   Count-part model
N OR 95% CI N RR 95% CI
Origin area
 Italya
 HDCb 48,256 0.23 (0.22–0.24) 8893 0.65 (0.61–0.70)
 Africa 76,575 0.52 (0.50–0.53) 24,219 1.46 (1.40–1.52)
 Latin-America 62,904 0.72 (0.70–0.73) 26,586 1.04 (1.00–1.08)
 Asia 62,904 0.43 (0.43–0.44) 50,093 0.80 (0.78–0.83)
 Central-Eastern Europe 213,961 0.55 (0.54–0.55) 83,619 0.96 (0.93–0.98)
Time-period
 Pre-2008a
 Post-2008 2,035,479 1.34 (1.34–1.35) 989,346 0.96 (0.96–0.97)
 N observations 3,772,584    1,735,368   
  1. a Reference category
  2. b Highly Developed Countries
  3. Adjusted for: gender and age.
  4. Zero-part model reports odds ratios for the outcome variable indicating persons without (Y = 0) or with Emergency Department experience (Y = 1, where all values larger than 0 are censored, which means, are fixed at 1), while the Count-part model, which reports rate ratios, models the number of Emergency Department experiences for those with Emergency Department experiences (for those with Y > 0)