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Table 3 Multivariate complex survey logistic regression estimates of HIV prevalence (N = 14,779)

From: Spatial analysis of factors associated with HIV infection in Malawi: indicators for effective prevention

Demographic Characteristic OR Std. Err. P-value 95% CI of OR
Lower Upper
Gender
 Male Ref.     
 Female 2.36 0.24 < 0.001 1.94 2.87
Age
 15–19 Ref     
 20–24 1.38 0.30 0.14 0.90 2.10
 25–29 2.43 0.51 < 0.001 1.61 3.66
 30–34 4.02 0.85 < 0.001 2.66 6.08
 35–39 4.90 0.95 < 0.001 3.35 7.19
 40–44 5.83 1.15 < 0.001 3.95 8.60
 45–49 5.91 1.29 < 0.001 3.85 9.08
 50+ 9.42 2.55 < 0.001 5.54 16.01
Education
 Post-Secondary Ref.     
 No education 1.06 0.32 0.85 0.59 1.90
 Primary 1.25 0.32 0.39 0.75 2.07
 Secondary 1.01 0.26 0.96 0.61 1.68
Marital Status
 Never Married Ref.     
 Currently Married 1.32 0.30 0.23 0.84 2.07
 Ever Marrieda 1.88 0.41 < 0.001 1.22 2.90
Religion
 Other Protestants Ref     
 Catholic 0.90 .10 0.35 0.71 1.13
 Church of Central Africa Presbyterian. 1.03 0.11 0.80 0.83 1.27
 Muslim 0.77 0.10 0.05 0.59 1.00
 No Religion/Other 1.53 0.49 0.18 0.82 2.85
Total number of lifetime sexual partners
 1 Ref.     
 0 0.96 0.31 0.90 0.51 1.80
 2 2.17 .24 < 0.001 1.75 2.69
 3–4 3.12 0.39 < 0.001 2.45 3.97
 5–9 3.10 0.54 < 0.001 2.21 4.36
 10+ 5.32 1.06 < 0.001 3.59 7.87
 Undisclosed 2.88 1.55 0.05 1.01 8.26
Use of condom/use condom for most recent sex
 Yes Ref     
 No 0.57 0.07 < 0.001 0.45 0.72
 Never had recent Sex 0.88 0.14 0.43 0.64 1.21
Number of extra marital sex partners
None Ref     
 1 0.87 0.13 0.35 0.64 1.17
 2+ 0.40 0.16 0.02 0.18 0.89
 Undisclosed 16.39 18.59 0.01 1.77 151.94
Had any STI last 12 months
 Yes Ref     
 No 0.57 0.11 < 0.001 0.39 0.82
 Don’t know 0.23 0.25 0.18 0.03 1.93
Household Wealth
 Richest Ref     
 Poor 0.72 0.10 0.02 0.54 0.95
 Rich 0.82 0.12 0.17 0.62 1.09
Place of residence
 Rural Ref     
 Urban 2.16 0.35 < 0.001 1.57 2.97
Region of Residence
 Northern Region Ref     
 Central region 1.09 0.19 0.63 0.77 1.53
 Southern region 2.66 0.40 < 0.001 1.98 3.57
Model Details
 Population size 14,779     
 Number of observations 14,779     
 Number of strata 56     
 Number of Primary Sampling Uuits 850     
 Design df 794     
 F (35, 760) 23.92     
 Prob > F < 0.001     
 McKelvey and Zavoina’s R2 0.324     
  1. aEver Married: included those who were divorced, separated and widowed