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Table 2 Results of Chi-square test for association between socio-demographic and HIV status (N = 14,779

From: Spatial analysis of factors associated with HIV infection in Malawi: indicators for effective prevention

Variables HIV Status Chi-square; P-value
Negative Positive  
n (%) n (%)  
Gender    χ2 = 60.894; p < 0.001
 Male 6543 (92.9%) 499 (7.1%)  
 Female 6904 (89.2%) 833 (10.8%)  
Age    χ2 = 647.472, p < 0.001
 15–19 3333 (97.9%) 73 (2.1%)  
 20–24 2862 (96.0%) 120 (4.0%)  
 25–29 2031 (92.0%) 176 (8.0%)  
 30–34 1742 (86.8%) 265 (13.2%)  
 35–39 1461 (84.9%) 259 (15.1%)  
 40–44 1013 (83.0%) 208 (17.0%)  
 45–49 750 (82.0%) 165 (18.0%)  
 50+ 256 (79.5%) 66 (20.5%)  
Education    χ2 = 23.031, p < 0.001
 No education 1177 (87.8%) 163 (12.2%)  
 Primary 8092 (91.3%) 774 (8.7%)  
 Secondary 3678 (91.7%) 332 (8.3%)  
 Post-Secondary 499 (88.8%) 63 (11.2%)  
Marital status    χ2 = 448.486, p < 0.001
 Never Married 4230 (97.0%) 129 (3.0%)  
 Currently Married 8241 (89.8%) 934 (10.2%)  
 Ever Marrieda 976 (78.5%) 268 (21.5%)  
Religion    χ2 = 6.103, p = 0.192
 Catholic 2566 (91.9%) 227 (8.1%)  
 Church of Central Africa Presbyterian. 2369 (91.5%) 220 (8.5%)  
 Other Protestant Christians 6667 (90.5%) 697 (9.5%)  
 Islam 1606 (90.9%) 161 (9.1%)  
 No religion/others 238 (89.5%) 28 (10.5%)  
Age at first sex    χ2 = 139.621, p < 0.001
 Never had sex/never had a partner 1815 (98.2%) 33 (1.8%)  
 < 16 4111 (89.2%) 498 (10.8%)  
 16–17 2821 (90.4%) 298 (9.6%)  
 18–19 2719 (90.4%) 289 (9.6%)  
 20+ 1981 (90.3%) 214 (9.7%)  
Recent Sexual activity    χ2 = 142.181, p < 0.001
 Never had sex 1815 (98.2%) 33 (1.8%)  
 Active last 4 weeks 7618 (90.5%) 803 (9.5%)  
 Not active last 4 weeks 4014 (89.0%) 496 (11.0%)  
Total number of lifetime sexual partners    χ2 = 390.753; p < 0.001
0 1815 (98.2%) 33 (1.8%)  
 1 4081 (95.2%) 204 (4.8%)  
 2 3045 (89.0%) 378 (11.0%)  
 3–4 2710 (86.1%) 437 (13.9%)  
 5–9 1262 (88.4%) 165 (11.6%)  
 10+ 490 (82.2%) 106 (17.8%)  
 Undisclosed 43 (84.3%) 8 (15.7%)  
Use condom for most recent sex    χ2 = 27.044, p < 0.001
 No 8269 (90.5%) 869 (9.5%)  
 Yes 1931 (89.6%) 224 (10.4%)  
 Not had recent sex 3247 (93.1%) 240 (6.9%)  
Extra marital/partner sexual partners    χ2 = 19.451, p < 0.001
 None 11,008 (90.8%) 1120 (9.2%)  
 1 2129 (91.6%) 196 (8.4%)  
 2+ 310 (95.4%) 15 (4.6%)  
 Undisclosed 0 (0) 1 (100.0%)  
Had any STI last 12 months    χ2 = 62.122; p < 0.001
 No 13,134 (91.2%) 1260 (8.8%)  
 Yes 269 (79.1%) 71 (20.9%)  
Don’t Know 44 (97.8%) 1 (2.2%)  
Household wealth index    χ2 = 63.130; p < 0.001
 Poor 5011 (92.7%) 396 (7.3%)  
 Rich 5298 (91.4%) 500 (8.6%)  
 Richest 3138 (87.8%) 436 (12.2%)  
Rural/urban Residence    χ2 = 144.740; p < 0.001
 Urban 2309 (85.0%) 407 (15.0%)  
 Rural 11,138 (92.3%) 925 (7.7%)  
Region    χ2 = 251.559; p < 0.001
 Northern 1710 (94.5%) 100 (5.5%)  
 Central 6005 (94.3%) 363 (5.7%)  
 Southern 5732 (86.8%) 870 (13.2%)  
  1. aEver Married: included those who were divorced, separated and widowed