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Table 5 Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and patient adherence after controlling for mediators

From: An examination of the socio-demographic correlates of patient adherence to self-management behaviors and the mediating roles of health attitudes and self-efficacy among patients with coexisting type 2 diabetes and hypertension

Variables Adherence to medication therapy Adherence to diet therapy Adherence to regular exercise
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Sex
 Male 1   1   1  
 Female 1.47 (0.77, 2.81) 0.25 1.33 (0.72, 2.45) 0.36 0.46 (0.24, 0.88) 0.02
Age (years)
  < 64 1   1   1  
  ≥ 64 1.08 (0.57, 2.05) 0.82 1.72 (0.91, 3.28) 0.10# 1.00 (0.52, 1.90) 0.99
Education level
 Lower 1   1   1  
 Higher 0.57 (0.29, 1.12) 0.11 1.07 (0.58, 1.99) 0.83 1.66 (0.85, 3.26) 0.14
Living status
 Living alone 1   1   1  
 Living with family/others 0.59 (0.22, 1.59) 0.30 0.72 (0.29, 1.79) 0.48 3.19 (1.14, 8.91) 0.03#
Perceived health status
 Poor 1   1   1  
 Good 1.98 (1.03, 3.80) 0.04# 1.29 (0.70, 2.38) 0.41 1.62 (0.85, 3.08) 0.14
Diabetes duration (years)
  ≤ 15 1   1   1  
  > 15 0.96 (0.50, 1.84) 0.90 1.02 (0.55, 1.90) 0.95 1.68 (0.89, 3.16) 0.11
Hypertension duration (years)
  ≤ 10 1   1   1  
  > 10 1.50 (0.78, 2.88) 0.22 0.85 (0.45, 1.61) 0.63 0.63 (0.33, 1.19) 0.15
Variables Adherence to tobacco and alcohol avoidance Adherence to stress reduction Adherence to self-monitoring/self-care
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Sex
 Male 1   1   1  
 Female 10.03 (3.88, 25.91) < 0.001 0.58 (0.31, 1.10) 0.10 1.22 (0.67, 2.21) 0.51
Age (years)
  < 64 1   1   1  
  ≥ 64 1.71 (0.76, 3.83) 0.20 0.69 (0.36, 1.32) 0.26 2.09 (1.09, 4.02) 0.03#
Education level
 Lower 1   1   1  
 Higher 1.08 (0.49, 2.35) 0.85 1.54 (0.79, 2.98) 0.21 0.97 (0.53, 1.78) 0.92
Living status
 Living alone 1   1   1  
 Living with family/others 0.10 (0.01, 0.84) 0.03 0.76 (0.28, 2.02) 0.58 2.30 (0.91, 5.84) 0.08
Perceived health status
 Poor 1   1   1  
 Good 1.80 (0.83, 3.94) 0.14 1.52 (0.81, 2.85) 0.19 0.81 (0.44, 1.48) 0.50
Diabetes duration (years)       
  ≤ 15 1   1   1  
  > 15 0.87 (0.40, 1.86) 0.71 1.62 (0.86, 3.07) 0.14 2.36 (1.25, 4.46) 0.01
Hypertension duration (years)       
  ≤ 10 1   1   1  
  > 10 1.36 (0.61, 3.03) 0.46 1.19 (0.62, 2.28) 0.60 0.77 (0.41, 1.45) 0.42
  1. # indicates that the significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and patient adherence (as in Table 2) decreased or became nonsignificant after controlling for the mediators (as in Table 5)