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Table 2 Factors affecting anaemia prevalence and mean haemoglobin level in women of reproductive age, Sudan, 2016

From: Prevalence and determinants of anaemia in women of reproductive age in Sudan: analysis of a cross-sectional household survey

Variables Pregnant women Non-pregnant women Women in reproductive age (pregnant and non-pregnant women combined)
Anaemia prevalence Total number Anaemia prevalence Total number Anaemia prevalence Total number
Average Haemoglobin level (g/L (SD)) Average Haemoglobin level (g/L (SD))
Level of education
No formal education n 60 157 400 1047 460 1204
% 38.2 114.6 (18.3) 38.2 122.4 (16.0) 38.2
Primary/religious education n 67 176 537 1587 604 1763
% 38.1 112.8 (18.0) 33.8 123.7 (15.1) 34.3
Secondary education n 15 53 259 764 274 817
% 28.3 116.9 (12.0) 33.9 123.8 (16.6) 33.5
Above secondary education n 10 35 171 452 181 487
% 28.6 115.8 (14.7) 37.8 122.6 (16.0) 37.2
p. value   0.414 0.407 0.066 0.118 0.072
Wealth index
Wealthiest n 21 76 384 1085 405 1161
% 27.60% 117.8 (17.3) 35.40% 122.9 (15.1) 35.50%
High n 33 99 336 1008 369 1107
% 33.30% 115.7 (19.0) 33.30% 123.8 (15.5) 33.30%
Middle n 29 81 221 652 250 733
% 35.80% 113.6 (16.1) 33.90% 123.9 (16.7) 34.10%
Low n 33 83 186 535 219 618
% 39.80% 112.7 (15.6) 34.80% 122.8 (15.8) 35.40%
Poorest n 36 82 240 570 276 652
% 43.90% 111.2 (20.4) 42.10% 122.5 (16.1) 42.30%
p. value   0.254 0.117 0.008* 0.324 0.003*
Sanitation type
Safe sanitation n 24 59 298 800 322 859
% 40.7 114.3 (14.7) 37.3 122.4 (15.8) 37.5
Unsafe sanitation n 82 226 718 2128 800 2354
% 36.3 113.9 (17.8) 33.7 123.6 (15.7) 34
Open defecation n 44 125 339 864 383 989
% 35.2 114.5 (17.9) 39.2 122.8 (15.7) 38.7
p. value   0.764 0.954 0.011* 0.145 0.017*
Source of drinking water
Piped to the house or bottled water n 13 55 286 786 299 841
% 23.6 119.6 (14.6) 36.4 122.7 (15.4) 35.6
Piped to public area n 50 131 452 1309 502 1440
% 38.2 113.4 (18.9) 34.5 123.3 (15.5) 34.9
Open source n 81 212 588 1634 669 1846
% 38.2 113.3 (16.7) 36 123.5 (16.0) 36.2
p. value   0.114 0.044* 0.616 0.487 0.714
Frequently listen to the radio
Yes n 49 117 378 1105 427 1222
% 41.9 114.3 (20.0) 34.2 123.7 (15.4) 34.9
No n 103 301 986 2734 1089 3035
% 34.2 114.1 (16.1) 36.1 123.1 (15.9) 35.9
p. value   0.147 0.884 0.28 0.282 0.572
Have health insurance
Yes n 39 129 484 1333 523 1462
% 30.2 116.2 (14.4) 36.3 123.0 (16.9) 35.8
No n 113 292 883 2517 996 2809
% 38.7 113.3 (18.3) 35.1 123.4 (15.8) 35.5
p. value   0.1 0.114 0.457 0.516 0.84
Malaria infection (parasitaemia)
Positive n 16 23 72 118 88 141
% 69.6 100.8 (18.9) 61.0 115.7 (13.6) 62.4
Negative n 136 397 1292 3722 1428 4119
% 34.3 114.9 (16.8) 34.7 123.5 (15.7) 34.7
p. value   0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*
Level of malaria endemicity
Meso-endemic (PR2–10 = 10- < 50%) n 33 81 178 512 211 593
% 40.7 113.4 (18.8) 34.8 123.2 (15.1) 35.6
Hypo-endemic (PR2–10 = < 10%) n 119 340 1189 3338 1308 3678
% 35.0 114.4 (16.9) 35.6 123.2 (15.8) 35.6
p. value   0.334 0.633 0.707 0.977 0.993
  1. p. value was calculated based on x2 test for categorical data (anaemia prevalence) and with t-test for continuous data (average haemoglobin level)
  2. p. values with statistical significance (p < 0.05) is denoted with *