Skip to main content

Table 1 Colorado suicide deaths between 2015 and 2017, by PDMP linkage status, and benzodiazepine and opioid exposure status

From: Epidemiologic assessment of benzodiazepine exposure among suicide deaths in Colorado, 2015–2017

  Total suicide deaths Linked to PDMP record Ever dispensed benzodiazepinea Recent benzodiazepine exposure b Recent benzodiazepine and opioid exposure c
  Count Count Percent Count Percent Count Percent Count Percent
Total 3465 2070 59.7% 1058 30.5% 699 20.2% 331 9.6%
Sex
Female 792 582 73.5% 373 47.1% 265 33.5% 143 18.1%
Male 2673 1488 55.7% 685 25.6% 434 16.2% 188 7.0%
Age-Female
0–14 yrs 18 7 38.9% * * * * * *
15–19 yrs 64 29 45.3% 5 7.8% 6 9.4% * *
20–24 yrs 53 34 64.2% 16 30.2% 11 20.8% 8 15.1%
25–34 yrs 126 92 73.0% 60 47.6% 42 33.3% 21 16.7%
35–44 yrs 122 100 82.0% 70 57.4% 43 35.2% 19 15.6%
45–54 yrs 175 131 74.9% 88 50.3% 64 36.6% 32 18.3%
55–64 yrs 143 117 81.8% 84 58.7% 54 37.8% 35 24.5%
65–74 yrs 59 49 83.1% 37 62.7% 31 52.5% 18 30.5%
75–84 yrs 18 12 66.7% 5 27.8% * * * *
85+ yrs 14 11 78.6% 8 57.1% 7 50.0% 5 35.7%
Age-Male
0–14 yrs 35 8 22.9% * * * * * *
15–19 yrs 150 46 30.7% 9 6.0% 11 7.3% * *
20–24 yrs 230 81 35.2% 32 13.9% 19 8.3% 8 3.5%
25–34 yrs 538 267 49.6% 117 21.7% 76 14.1% 25 4.6%
35–44 yrs 419 247 58.9% 125 29.8% 79 18.9% 38 9.1%
45–54 yrs 478 287 60.0% 138 28.9% 80 16.7% 28 5.9%
55–64 yrs 428 285 66.6% 157 36.7% 101 23.6% 49 11.4%
65–74 yrs 218 147 67.4% 63 28.9% 50 22.9% 30 13.8%
75–84 yrs 121 81 66.9% 30 24.8% 11 9.1% * *
85+ yrs 56 39 69.6% 14 25.0% 6 10.7% * *
Suicide Mechanism
Drugs/Overdose 425 340 80.0% 247 58.1% 204 48.0% 147 34.6%
Solids or Liquids 18 9 50.0% 5 27.8% * * * *
Gases and Vapors 130 70 53.8% 33 25.4% 24 18.5% 9 6.9%
Hanging/Asphyxiation 956 536 56.1% 236 24.7% 126 13.2% 38 4.0%
Firearm 1743 998 57.3% 465 26.7% 294 16.9% 118 6.8%
Jumping 59 38 64.4% 22 37.3% 13 22.0% 7 11.9%
Sharp Object 45 22 48.9% 16 35.6% 10 22.2% * *
Other/Unspecified 89 57 64.0% 34 38.2% 24 27.0% 8 9.0%
Other Circumstances
No Known Mental Health Problem 1489 723 48.6% 271 18.2% 170 11.4% 94 6.3%
Known Mental Health Problem 1976 1347 68.2% 787 39.8% 529 26.8% 237 12.0%
No Known Physical Health Problem 2171 1112 51.2% 519 23.9% 333 15.3% 115 5.3%
Known Physical Health Problem 1294 958 74.0% 539 41.7% 366 28.3% 216 16.7%
No Known Alcohol or Substance Abuse Problem 1979 1125 56.8% 552 27.9% 370 18.7% 174 8.8%
Known Alcohol or Substance Abuse Problem 1486 945 63.6% 506 34.1% 329 22.1% 157 10.6%
  1. All percents are based on total suicide deaths in category
  2. * Indicates fewer than three suicide deaths in category
  3. a “Ever dispensed a benzodiazepine” is defined as having received a prescription for a benzodiazepine ever during the timeframe of the analysis (2014–2017)
  4. b” Recent benzodiazepine exposure” is defined as benzodiazepines prescribed within 30 days of death or a positive toxicology for benzodiazepines post-mortem
  5. c” Recent benzodiazepine and opioid exposure” is defined as those with recent benzodiazepine exposure who were also either prescribed an opioid within 30 days of death, or had positive toxicology post-mortem for opioids