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Table 3 Themes within the context of the biopsychosocial model related to reasons for participation, experience, and retention in the WHAT-IF? study

From: Recruitment, experience, and retention among women with HIV and hazardous drinking participating in a clinical trial

Biopsychosocial Factors Reasons for study participation Clinical trial experience (positive or negative) and retention in study
Biological • To reduce drinking to nonhazardous levels
• To quit drinking
• Study medication
Psychological • To gain knowledge about the negative effects of hazardous drinking on HIV disease progression
• The opportunity for self-reflection or self-growth
• Thoughts and feelings toward study procedures (e.g. study medication, lab work, computer-based assessments)
• Length of study
Social • To feel pressured by members of social network
• To earn supplemental income
• Interactions with research study staff