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Table 1 Association between antibiotic prescribing and area-level deprivation in England. Robust standard errors in parentheses **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05

From: An examination of trends in antibiotic prescribing in primary care and the association with area-level deprivation in England

MODEL NUMBER (1) (2)
VARIABLES Excludes measures of ‘need’ Includes measures of ‘need’
Coefficient (Robust Standard Error) Coefficient (Robust Standard Error)
LSOAs IMD
 1 (Most Deprived) 0.15 (0.01) ** 0.03 (0.01) *
 2 0.13 (0.01) ** 0.03 (0.01) *
 3 0.11 (0.01) ** 0.03 (0.01) *
 4 0.08 (0.01) ** < 0.00 (0.01)
 5 0.06 (0.01) ** < 0.00 (0.01)
 6 0.06 (0.01) ** 0.01 (0.01)
 7 0.04 (0.01) ** < 0.00 (0.01)
 8 0.03 (0.01) ** < 0.00 (0.01)
 9 0.02 (0.01) * < 0.00 (0.01)
 10 (Least Deprived) Reference
Ethnicity
 % White < 0.01 (< 0.01) ** < 0.01 (< 0.01) **
Rurality
 Rural Reference
 Urban −0.04 (0.01) ** −0.02 (0.01) **
Region
 London Reference
 East of England 0.20 (0.01) ** 0.16 (0.01) **
 East Midlands 0.14 (0.01) ** 0.09 (0.01) **
 North East 0.25 (0.01) ** 0.16 (0.01) **
 North West 0.21 (0.01) ** 0.14 (0.01) **
 South East 0.13 (0.01) ** 0.11 (0.02) **
 South West 0.09 (0.01) ** 0.05 (0.01) **
 West Midlands 0.15 (0.01) ** 0.09 (0.01) **
 Yorkshire and Humber 0.18 (0.01) ** 0.11 (0.01) **
Time
 2014–2015 Reference
 2015–2016 −0.10 (< 0.01) ** −0.11 (< 0.01) **
 2016–2017 − 0.12 (< 0.01) ** −0.13 (< 0.01) **
 2017–2018 −0.16 (< 0.01) ** −0.18 (< 0.01) **
Health need
 Diabetes prevalence (%)   0.03 (< 0.01) **
 COPD prevalence (%)   0.05 (0.01) **
Wald Chi2Statistic 9210.16 9880.89
R2 0.22 0.32
Observations 28,809 28,809