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Table 1 Sociodemographic, Drug Use, Mental Illness, and Chronic Disease Characteristics by Sexual Orientation among Adults Age ≥ 50, United States, 2015–2017

From: Co-occurring mental illness, drug use, and medical multimorbidity among lesbian, gay, and bisexual middle-aged and older adults in the United States: a nationally representative study

  Men Women
Total (n = 11,876)
% (SE)
Hetero-sexual
(n = 11,509), % (SE)
Gay
(n = 227) % (SE)
Bisexual
(n = 140) % (SE)
Total (n = 14,004) % (SE) Hetero-sexual
(n = 13,708) % (SE)
Lesbian
(n = 173) % (SE)
Bisexual
(n = 123) % (SE)
Survey Year
 2015 33.0 (0.7) 33.1 (0.7) 31.0 (4.3) 32.5 (5.5) 32.8 (0.5) 32.7 (0.5) 33.5 (5.3) 40.4 (5.1)
 2016 33.2 (0.5) 33.2 (0.5) 35.1 (3.5) 27.7 (4.4) 33.3 (0.5) 33.4 (0.5) 33.6 (4.8) 20.7 (4.3)
 2017 33.8 (0.6) 33.7 (0.6) 33.9 (4.6) 39.8 (5.4) 33.9 (0.4) 33.9 (0.4) 33.0 (4.6) 39.0 (4.6)
Age
 50–64, y 58.4 (0.5) b 58.1 (0.5) 75.0 (3.3) 62.1 (5.6) 54.8 (0.5) b 54.5 (0.6) 66.2 (5.5) 76.3 (4.8)
 ≥ 65, y 41.6 (0.5) 41.9 (0.6) 25.0 (3.3) 37.9 (5.6) 45.2 (0.5) 45.5 (0.6) 33.8 (5.5) 23.7 (4.8)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 74.2 (0.5) 74.3 (0.5) 69.9 (4.0) 66.3 (4.9) 72.8 (0.6) 72.7 (0.6) 81.4 (3.5) 63.5 (4.6)
 Black 9.6 (0.3) 9.5 (0.3) 10.3 (2.0) 11.3 (3.4) 11.1 (0.4) 11.1 (0.4) 7.0 (2.6) 9.7 (3.4)
 Hispanic 10.4 (0.4) 10.3 (0.4) 14.8 (3.3) 10.5 (4.0) 10.1 (0.4) 10.1 (0.4) 6.8 (2.2) 16.0 (4.1)
 Asian/Other 5.9 (0.3) 5.9 (0.3) 5.1 (2.6) 11.8 (4.1) 6.1 (0.3) 6.0 (0.3) 4.8 (2.0) 10.8 (3.9)
Education
 Less than High School 13.7 (0.4) c 13.8 (0.4) 9.8 (2.1) 11.2 (2.9) 13.8 (0.4) c 13.8 (0.4) 11.3 (2.9) 18.4 (3.5)
 High School Diploma 26.4 (0.5) 26.8 (0.5) 11.6 (2.5) 17.4 (4.0) 27.1 (0.5) 27.4 (0.5) 11.2 (2.9) 16.4 (3.8)
 Some College 25.8 (0.5) 25.9 (0.6) 25.9 (3.6) 20.8 (4.1) 29.5 (0.5) 29.4 (0.5) 33.0 (4.2) 34.0 (5.1)
 College Degree 34.1 (0.6) 33.5 (0.6) 52.7 (4.6) 50.6 (4.1) 29.7 (0.7) 29.5 (0.7) 44.5 (5.0) 31.3 (4.5)
Annual Family Income
  < $20,000 13.2 (0.4) a 13.0 (0.4) 15.8 (2.5) 25.9 (4.9) 17.8 (0.5) 17.8 (0.5) 18.5 (4.2) 18.5 (4.8)
 $20,000–$49,999 28.0 (0.5) 28.0 (0.5) 28.3 (4.0) 28.6 (4.7) 31.9 (0.5) 31.9 (0.5) 28.9 (4.0) 36.0 (5.6)
 $50,000–$74,999 17.0 (0.4) 17.0 (0.5) 21.5 (3.9) 13.2 (3.6) 16.4 (0.3) 16.4 (0.4) 19.4 (3.2) 16.2 (4.1)
 ≥ $75,000 41.8 (0.6) 42.0 (0.6) 34.4 (4.8) 32.3 (4.6) 33.9 (0.5) 33.9 (0.5) 33.3 (4.2) 29.4 (4.6)
Relationship Status
 Not Married 30.7 (0.5) c 29.6 (0.4) 75.4 (3.4) 59.0 (5.2) 44.4 (0.6) c 44.0 (0.6) 63.9 (5.6) 64.2 (4.3)
 Married 69.3 (0.5) 70.4 (0.4) 24.6 (3.4) 41.0 (5.2) 55.6 (0.6) 56.0 (0.6) 36.1 (5.6) 35.8 (4.3)
Government Assistance 13.7 (0.4) 13.6 (0.4) 18.2 (3.5) 15.5 (3.2) 17.5 (0.4) 17.4 (0.4) 21.2 (4.1) 25.2 (4.3)
Past-Year Drug Use
 Any Past-Year Drug Use 10.5 (0.3) c 10.2 (0.3) 20.9 (4.6) 20.4 (4.7) 6.7 (0.2) c 6.5 (0.2) 13.1 (2.9) 27.7 (4.4)
 Cannabis (unprescribed) 7.4 (0.3) a 7.2 (0.3) 13.4 (4.1) 14.4 (3.8) 4.1 (0.2) c 3.9 (0.2) 9.2 (3.0) 21.2 (4.1)
 Opioids (misuse) 2.8 (0.2) a 2.7 (0.2) 5.6 (1.9) 5.3 (1.7) 2.1 (0.1) b 2.0 (0.1) 1.8 (1.1) 6.6 (2.2)
 Tranquilizers (misuse) 1.2 (0.1) c 1.1 (0.1) 5.4 (2.0) 4.2 (2.1) 1.1 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 2.1 (1.4) 1.7 (1.2)
 Illegal Drugs (non-cannabis) 1.5 (0.1) a 1.5 (0.1) 2.7 (1.4) 4.8 (2.0) 0.7 (0.1) b 0.7 (0.1) 0.8 (0.8) 4.1 (2.3)
Mental Illness (Past Year)
 Mental illness d 4.8 (0.2) c 4.5 (0.2) 9.8 (2.4) 16.8 (3.4) 7.9 (0.3) b 7.8 (0.3) 8.7 (2.6) 17.8 (4.3)
Chronic Disease
 Asthma 5.8 (0.3) 5.7 (0.3) 8.7 (2.3) 6.3 (2.8) 9.8 (0.3) 9.7 (0.3) 15.0 (3.3) 13.1 (3.7)
 Bronchitis/COPD 6.0 (0.3) 6.0 (0.3) 8.2 (1.9) 8.6 (2.5) 9.0 (0.3) a 8.9 (0.3) 15.6 (3.9) 12.0 (3.4)
 Cancer 10.7 (0.4) 10.7 (0.4) 12.6 (3.1) 8.1 (2.4) 12.5 (0.3) 12.5 (0.4) 13.2 (3.5) 13.9 (3.9)
 Cirrhosis 0.7 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) 0.8 (0.8) 0.0 (0.0) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) 2.0 (1.4)
 Diabetes 18.4 (0.5) 18.4 (0.5) 19.8 (3.3) 13.5 (3.0) 16.8 (0.4) 16.9 (0.4) 18.2 (3.4) 10.9 (2.6)
 Heart Condition 22.1 (0.6) 22.1 (0.5) 22.4 (3.2) 23.5 (4.4) 15.9 (0.4) 15.9 (0.4) 12.4 (2.8) 11.5 (3.2)
 Hepatitis B/C 3.0 (0.2) c 2.8 (0.2) 13.6 (2.9) 7.7 (2.6) 1.5 (0.1) a 1.4 (0.1) 2.3 (1.3) 4.9 (2.0)
 High Blood Pressure 31.2 (0.5) 31.1 (0.5) 35.7 (3.9) 29.6 (4.8) 36.3 (0.5) a 36.4 (0.5) 29.5 (3.7) 27.2 (4.1)
 HIV/AIDS 0.3 (0.1) c 0.7 (0.0) 12.2 (2.6) 1.7 (0.9) 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0)
 Kidney Disease 3.3 (0.2) 3.2 (0.2) 4.0 (1.8) 5.3 (2.6) 3.5 (0.2) 3.5 (0.2) 3.1 (1.6) 3.7 (2.0)
 0–1 Chronic Diseases 74.3 (0.5) b 74.5 (0.5) 63.3 (3.9) 74.7 (4.1) 73.2 (0.5) 73.2 (0.5) 72.8 (4.0) 74.9 (4.4)
 Multiple Chronic Diseases 25.7 (0.5) 25.5 (0.5) 36.7 (3.9) 25.3 (4.1) 26.8 (0.5) 26.8 (0.5) 27.2 (4.0) 25.1 (4.4)
  1. White and black participants were identified as non-Hispanic; SE Standard error, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aSignificant at P < .05 based on Rao-Scott chi-square test
  3. bSignificant at P < .01 based on Rao-Scott chi-square test
  4. cSignificant at P < .001 based on Rao-Scott chi-square test
  5. dDefined as moderate or severe mental illness based on National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) indicator [19]