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Table 2 Overall significant adjusted odds ratio for loneliness for each age group

From: Age differences in demographic, social and health-related factors associated with loneliness across the adult life span (19–65 years): a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

  19–34 years 35–49 years 50–65 years
Model pseudo R2 0.410 Model pseudo R2 0.364 Model pseudo R2 0.378
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Demographic factors
 Gender
  Malea    
  Female   0.76 (0.65–0.88) 0.73 (0.65–0.83)
 Education
  Lowa    
  Intermediate 0.65 (0.47–0.90)   
  High 0.53 (0.38–0.73)   
 Ethnicity
  Dutch Origina    
  Non-Dutch Origin 2.06 (1.60–2.65) 2.16 (1.78–2.62) 1.27 (1.08–1.49)
 Employment Status
  Not currently employeda    
  Employed   0.71 (0.56–0.90)  
 Financial imbalance
  Noa    
  Yes 2.00 (1.56–2.56) 1.54 (1.25–1.91) 1.30 (1.10–1.54)
 Marital status
  Married/living togethera    
  Never been married    1.47 (1.10–1.97)
  Divorced    1.48 (1.14–1.93)
  Widowed    1.37 (0.96–1.96)
Social factors
 Living arrangement
  Living alonea    
  2 or more persons 0.57 (0.43–0.75) 0.58 (0.45–0.75) 0.69 (0.53–0.89)
 Volunteer work
  Noa    
  Yes    
 Family contact
  More than twice a montha    
  Less than twice a month   1.91 (1.30–2.80) 2.03 (1.58–2.61)
 Friends contact
  More than twice a montha    
  Less than twice a month 5.93 (3.82–9.22) 3.34 (2.55–4.37) 3.237 (2.65–3.96)
 Neighbours contact
  More than twice a montha    
  Less than twice a month 1.55 (1.27–1.90) 1.63 (1.35–1.98) 1.631 (1.39–1.91)
 Society exclusion
  (Very) oftena    
  Sometimes, never 0.34 (0.22–0.49) 0.41 (0.30–0.57) 0.41 (0.30–0.56)
Health-related factors
 General health
  Poor    
  Good    0.78 (0.67–0.90)
 Limitations in daily activities
  Noa    
  Yes    
 Psychological Distress
  No/low riska    
  Moderate/high risk 2.15 (1.77–2.63) 1.908 (1.61–2.26) 1.76 (1.54–2.01)
 Caregiver’s burden
  Not an informal caregivera    
  No burden    
  Overburden    
 Presence of chronic disease
  Noa    
  Yes    
 Psychological wellbeing (one unit increase) 0.67 (0.58–0.77) 0.69 (0.62–0.77) 0.70 (0.64–0.76)
 Emotional wellbeing (one unit increase) 0.61 (0.53–0.71) 0.68 (0.60–0.76) 0.61 (0.55–0.67)
 Social wellbeing (one unit increase)    
  1. Only factors significant at P < 0.05 in the final model are presented
  2. AOR Adjusted odds ratios, CI Confidence interval
  3. a reference category