Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics among US-born Latino youth and Latina mothers by maternal foreign-born and citizenship status, and maternal insurance coverage status

From: Association of maternal characteristics with latino youth health insurance disparities in the United States: a generalized structural equation modeling approach

  Total Maternal Citizenship Status   Maternal Insurance Coverage Status  
US-born Citizen Naturalized Citizen Noncitizen Private Public Uninsured
N 15,912 7154 2517 6241 (P) 6173 4284 5455 (P)
Weighted % 100 44.9 15.8 39.2   38.8 26.9 34.3  
Youth Uninsurance
 No 92.4 93.7 93.1 90.6 < 0.001 97.8 99.1 81.1 < 0.001
 Yes 7.6 6.3 6.9 9.4   2.2 0.9 18.9  
Predisposing Factors
 Maternal Marital Status
  Married 63.3 55.1 75.4 67.9 < 0.001 75.7 44.8 61.9 < 0.001
  Divorced/Separated 13.1 14.8 15.5 10.1   11.3 17.2 12.4  
  Never Married 23.6 30.1 9.1 22.0   13.0 38.0 25.7  
 Interview Language
  English/ Spanish and English 77.5 95.6 81.0 55.4 < 0.001 90.4 76.4 63.5 < 0.001
  Spanish/Other 22.5 4.4 19.0 44.6   9.7 23.6 36.5  
 Maternal Education Level
  Less than a High School Degree 32.0 14.0 20.7 57.1 < 0.001 12.2 37.2 49.9 < 0.001
  High School Degree 53.6 66.5 57.6 37.2   57.5 57.9 45.4  
  College Degree or more 14.4 19.5 21.7 5.8   30.3 4.9 4.7  
 Maternal Employment
  Working/With a job 58.1 66.7 68.9 43.9 < 0.001 78.3 45.4 45.7 < 0.001
  Unemployed 6.0 6.4 5.3 5.8   2.1 9.9 7.7  
  Not in Labor Force 35.9 26.9 25.8 50.3   19.7 44.7 46.6  
Maternal Age
  18–29 31.0 39.3 16.2 27.5 < 0.001 20.3 42.1 33.4 < 0.001
  30–39 46.3 41.9 46.2 51.4   49.2 40.1 48.9  
  40–49 19.2 15.9 30.8 18.4   25.5 15.0 15.9  
  50–64 3.4 2.9 6.9 2.7   4.9 2.9 1.9  
 US Census Region
  Northeast 12.5 11.8 18.3 10.9 0.953 12.2 22.4 8.4 0.462
  North Central/Midwest 10.0 10.5 8.1 10.3   10.8 9.7 9.3  
  South 37.5 36.2 36.5 39.3   38.3 20.3 50.2  
  West 40.0 41.5 37.2 39.5   38.8 47.7 32.1  
Enabling Factor
 Income (%FPL)
  200% and above 38.5 51.0 50.8 19.2 < 0.001 73.1 14.6 17.1 < 0.001
  100–199% 31.8 26.4 30.7 38.4   21.5 36.0 39.6  
  99% and below 29.7 22.6 18.4 42.4   5.4 49.4 43.3  
Need Factors
 Maternal General Health Status
  Excellent/very good 60.7 62.4 65.8 56.8 < 0.001 69.2 52.6 56.9 < 0.001
  Good 30.5 28.3 27.5 34.3   25.1 34.7 33.3  
  Fair/poor 8.8 9.3 6.8 8.9   5.7 12.7 9.7  
 Youth General Health Status
  Excellent/very good 79.4 81.9 81.8 75.5 < 0.001 85.8 75.1 74.8 < 0.001
  Good 18.2 15.8 16.1 21.8   13.2 20.9 22.3  
  Fair/poor 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.6   1.0 4.1 2.9  
Contextual Characteristic
 Year
  2010–2013 43.2 41.7 40.0 46.3 < 0.001 40.2 37.9 50.1 < 0.001
  2014–2015 22.8 22.3 23.0 23.4   23.0 24.6 21.5  
  2016–2018 33.9 36.1 37.0 30.3   36.7 37.6 27.9  
  1. Weighted column percentages
  2. FPL federal poverty level
  3. ANOVA test (P) values
  4. IPUMS National Health Interview Survey, 2010–2018
\