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Table 4 Effects of dietary micronutrient intake on the association between PM2.5 and BP in both e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers

From: Micronutrient-rich dietary intake is associated with a reduction in the effects of particulate matter on blood pressure among electronic waste recyclers at Agbogbloshie, Ghana

Variables Systolic blood pressure (SBP) Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) Pulse pressure (PP) Arterial pressure (AP) Heart rate (HR)
β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI]
PM2.5 −0.033* [− 0.054, − 0.013] −0.027* [− 0.053, − 0.002] 0.045* [− 0.088, − 0.003] −0.030* [− 0.051, − 0.009] 0.022 [− 0.014, 0.060]
Ca −0.029 [− 0.066, 0.008] −0.001 [− 0.036, 0.034] −0.042 [− 0.101, 0.016] −0.010 [− 0.039, 0.019] −0.045 [− 0.095, 0.006]
PM2.5 − 0.032* [− 0.053, − 0.011] −0.025 [− 0.051, 0.001] −0.045* [− 0.089, − 0.002] −0.028* [− 0.049, − 0.007] 0.029 [− 0.008, 0.065]
Mg 0.006 [− 0.006, 0.019] 0.016* [0.001, 0.032] −0.007 [− 0.033, 0.019] 0.012 [− 0.001, 0.024] 0.024* [0.002, 0.047]
PM2.5 − 0.030* [− 0.051, − 0.010] −0.026 [− 0.051, 0.0003] −0.040 [− 0.083, 0.003] 0.027* [− 0.048, − 0.007] 0.027 [− 0.010, 0.064]
Fe −0.043* [− 0.074, − 0.012] −0.029 [− 0.069, 0.010] −0.061 [− 0.126, 0.005] −0.036* [− 0.068, − 0.004] −0.029 [− 0.086, 0.028]
PM2.5 − 0.029* [− 0.050, − 0.008] −0.026 [− 0.053, 0.001] −0.037 [− 0.082, 0.008] −0.027* [− 0.049, − 0.005] 0.028 [− 0.011, 0.066]
Se 0.007 [− 0.005, 0.018] −0.001 [− 0.016, 0.014] 0.019 [− 0.006, 0.043] 0.002 [− 0.009, 0.014] −0.009 [− 0.030, 0.012]
PM2.5 − 0.033* [− 0.054, − 0.013] −0.027* [− 0.053, − 0.002] −0.045* [− 0.087, − 0.002] −0.030* [− 0.051, − 0.009] 0.025 [− 0.012, 0.062]
Cu 0.017 [− 0.0001, 0.035] −0.001 [− 0.023, 0.021] 0.043* [0.006, 0.079] 0.008 [− 0.010, 0.026] −0.003 [− 0.034, 0.029]
PM2.5 − 0.031* [− 0.052, − 0.011] −0.025 [− 0.051, 0.001] −0.043 [− 0.086, 0.00004] −0.027* [− 0.048, − 0.006] 0.026 [− 0.011, 0.064]
Zn −0.029 [− 0.066, 0.008] −0.040 [− 0.086, 0.007] −0.017 [− 0.094, 0.060] −0.035 [− 0.072, 0.003] −0.015 [− 0.084, 0.053]
  1. Random effect adjustment was made for age, income, BMI, smoking status, marital status, biomass exposure, total calories consumed, and dietary diversity scores in the model. p < 0.05*, for which reason their values were boldened