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Table 2 Regression analyses of associations between providing unpaid care at time 1 and economic and health outcomes at time 2

From: The high cost of unpaid care by young people:health and economic impacts of providing unpaid care

OUTCOMES AT TIME 2 Caring responsibilities time 1 compared to no caring responsibilities at time 1: all carers1 Average treatment effect (ATE) after propensity score matching: new caring responsibilities at time 1 compared to no caring responsibilities at time 1 PSM diagnostic tests
Odds ratio (95% CI) ATE (95% CI)
Unemployed/long-term sick or disabled 2.39* (1.60, 3.56) 0.17* (0.07, 0.26) B: 20.9
R: 0.60
Left employment 2.52* (1.34, 4.73) 0.04 ns (−0.04, 0.11) B: 12.5
R: 1.05
  Coefficient (95% CI)   
Mental health score −2.75* (−4.32, −1.17) −1.47 ns (−3.77, 0.83) B: 23.3
R: 0.63
Physical health score −1.00 ~ (−2.08, 0.08) −2.03*. (−3.79, −0.27) B: 23.3
R: 0.63
  Mean cost difference (£) (95% CI)  
Monthly earnings from employment −164.53* (− 264.28, −64.78) − 225.65* (− 351.48, −99.83) B: 21.1
R: 0.67
Monthly individual state welfare benefits 44.27* (10.05, 78.49) 110.83* (32.78, 188.89) B: 21.1
R: 0.67
Annual tax revenue − 740.81* (− 1268.84, − 212.78) − 644.25 ~ (− 1359.64, 31.27) B: 21.1
R: 0.67
Annual health service use costs 289.01* (111.18, 466.85) 707.60* (68.85, 1346.35) B: 22.6
R: 0.62
  1. *p < .05; ~ p = 0.10
  2. B = Rubins’ B (the absolute standardised difference of the means of the linear index of the propensity score in the treated and matched non-treated group), R = Rubin’s R (the ratio of treated to (matched) non-treated variances of the propensity score index). If B < 25 and R = 0.5 to 2, the samples are considered sufficiently balanced
  3. [1] Controlling for carer’s sex, ethnicity, health, marital status, highest qualification, housing tenure and age at time 1 in analysis of employment status; controlling for carer’s sex, ethnicity, health, marital status, highest qualification, housing tenure and age in analysis of earnings from paid employment, lost tax revenue, and welfare benefits; controlling for carer’s sex, ethnicity, marital status, highest qualification, housing tenure at time 1 in analysis of physical health score; mental health score; controlling for carer’s sex, ethnicity, marital status, highest qualification, housing tenure and age in analysis of health service use. Physical health score is Physical Component of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF12 PCS); lower score = worse physical health. Mental health score is Mental Component of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF12 MCS); lower score = worse mental health