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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants stratified by hypertension status

From: Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in older people: results from the population-based KORA-age 1 study

Variable Total (n = 1052) Hypertension (n = 790) No Hypertension (n = 262) P-value
Sex     1.000
 Male 529 (50.3) 397 (50.3) 132 (50.4)  
 Female 523 (49.7) 393 (49.7) 130 (49.6)  
Age (mean (±SD)) 75.9 (6.6) 76.2 (6.4) 75.1 (6.9) 0.020
Age (years) (%)     0.020
 65–69 227 (21.6) 157 (19.9) 70 (26.7)  
 70–74 227 (21.6) 163 (20.6) 64 (24.4)  
 75–79 241 (22.9) 192 (24.3) 49 (18.7)  
 80–84 232 (22.1) 186 (23.5) 46 (17.6)  
 85–94 125 (11.9) 92 (11.6) 33 (12.6)  
Living with partner (%) 656 (63.0) 420 (79.7) 236 (45.9) < 0.001
Smoking status (%)     < 0.001
 Never 565 (53.7) 417 (52.8) 148 (56.5) 0.504
 Ex-smoker 438 (41.6) 337 (42.7) 101 (38.5)  
 Current smoker 49 (4.7) 36 (4.6) 13 (5.0)  
Education a (%)     0.112
 Low level 717 (68.2) 552 (69.9) 165 (63.0)  
 Middle level 190 (18.1) 136 (17.2) 54 (20.6)  
 High level 145 (13.8) 102 (12.9) 43 (16.4)  
BMI (kg/m2) (%)     < 0.001
 Underweight (< 18.5) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4)  
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 213 (20.2) 142 (18.0) 71 (27.1)  
 Overweight (25–29.9) 515 (49.0) 379 (48.0) 136 (51.9)  
 Obese (≥30) 323 (30.7) 269 (34.1) 54 (20.6)  
 BMI (median (IQR)) 27.9 (25.4–30.8) 28.3 (25.8–31.2) 26.9 (24.8–29.5) < 0.001
Physically active (%) b 561 (53.3) 422 (53.4) 139 (53.1) 0.975
Heart diseases (%) * 327 (31.1) 250 (31.6) 77 (29.4) 0.544
Kidney diseases (%) * 50 (4.8) 42 (5.3) 8 (3.1) 0.185
Diabetes (%) c 187 (17.8) 167 (21.2) 20 (7.6) < 0.001
Stroke (%) * 88 (8.4) 68 (8.6) 20 (7.6) 0.715
  1. p value obtained from comparing differences between hypertensives and non-hypertensives using X2-test for categorical variables, t-test for age difference, and Mann-Whitney U test for BMI medians
  2. a Based on the highest academic qualification: Low level (‘Hauptschule’), Middle level (‘Realschule’), High level (‘Abitur’ or higher level)
  3. b Physical activity: self-reported sporting activity during leisure time of 1 h or more per week, regularly or irregularly
  4. c Diabetes mellitus was both self-reported and confirmed also through use of antidiabetic medications
  5. * Self-reported comorbidities
  6. SD Standard deviation of the observed age in our sample; BMI Body mass index; IQR Interquartile range