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Table 4 Facilitators of PCC for migrants mapped to patient-centred care domains

From: Barriers and facilitators of patient centered care for immigrant and refugee women: a scoping review

Patient-centred careImmigrant and refugee target
Domains [20]DescriptionGeneralWomen
Foster a healing relationshipEstablishing a friendly, courteous and comfortable
relationship
• Focus attention on the patient (not computer)
• Prepare ahead of time
• Treat patient as person and not a disease
• Be dedicated to help migrants
• Promote a culture of diversity
• Be self-aware of the influence of one’s own culture
• Greet and welcome the patient
• Take time to chat informally
• Adopt a friendly, caring and respectful manner
• Doctor of same gender, culture or religion, or of older age
• Become familiar with patient’s culture and migration journey
• Learn a few words of patient’s language
• Ensure continuity of the healthcare team
• Assume a non-judgment manner
• Convey clinical competency
• Woman doctor, or doctor of same culture or religion
Exchange informationLearning about the patient; words or language used to discuss health care• Listen to the patient
• Ask questions to fully understand patient’s concern
• Involve personal support or trained interpreter
• Ensure the patient accepts use of an interpreter
• Speak slowly
• Use short sentences
• Avoid medical jargon
• Explain topics in various ways
• Devote more time to consultations or divide tasks into multiple consultations
• Take extra time to check/ensure comprehension
• Provide time to ask questions
• Good communication skills
Address emotions or concernsResponding to or managing emotional reactions• Acknowledge concerns
• Offer comfort and encouragement
• Apply multidisciplinary teamwork
Manage uncertaintyAddressing uncertainties about prognosis or outcomes• Be honest about diagnosis
Make decisionsEngaging patient in discussion and decision-making• Recognize, accommodate and respect cultural differences
• Personalize care (don’t generalize to culture or country of origin)
• Provide enough information that they are equipped to take part in decisions
Enable self-managementSetting expectations for follow-up care; preparing for self-managing health and well-being• Coordinate tests and appointments
• Take time to describe how the healthcare system works or offer orientation/tours
• Use verbal and audiovisual rather than written communication (may lack literacy even in own written language)
• Collaborate with community agencies